Analysis of Barriers to Rural Waste Management (Case Study: Central District of Urmia County)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Extension and Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

2 Department of Extension and Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz,, Iran

3 Department of Extension and Rural Development, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz,, Tabriz, Iran


Introduction: Planning for proper waste management and attention to its harmful effects on the environment in any country is one of the most important and necessary principles to provide long-term benefits and move towards sustainable development. The overall purpose of this study was to analyze the barriers to rural waste management in the central part of Urmia. In order to get a comprehensive understanding of the obstacles, problems and limitations that have caused the unfavorable management of rural waste in the studied area.
Material and methods: The research was applied in terms of purpose and data were collected in the field. The statistical population of the study included all villagers in the central part of Urmia city, in which rural waste management was performed (N = 136). The questionnaire was the main research tool that was designed using content review and interviews with experts and faculty members of the university. To evaluate its reliability, 30 questionnaires were completed and the Cronbach's alpha value was 0.91, which indicated the acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and exploratory factor analysis technique.
Results and discussion: The results of factor analysis showed that rural waste management barriers in six groups of educational-cultural barriers (variance dimension 18.13), health-environmental (variance dimension 18.06), knowledge (variance dimension 12.53), environmental (variance dimension 10.96), disposal management (variance dimension 10.24) and equipment (variance dimension 6.92) were classified as 76.84% of the total variance changes related to rural waste management barriers in the study area. In prioritizing the items of educational-cultural obstacles, the absence of the required culture regarding less consumption was the first rank. In terms of health-environmental obstacles, leaving and disposing of waste by villagers in the nearest place (on roads, along rivers, on the side of roads, etc.) and the occurrence of parasitic diseases for the villagers, was the first rank. In terms of knowledge barriers, lack of awareness and low knowledge of the villagers regarding the economic value of reusing agricultural residues was the first rank. In the disposal management factor, the lack of a separation plan at the source and as a result mixing wet, dry and special waste together was the first rank. Regarding the environmental factor, the presence of verminous insects and rodents and their increase at certain times of the year at the disposal site and roads until the time of garbage collection, was ranked first and finally among the factor factors. equipment, lack and lack of conversion industries for reuse of waste and agricultural residues, took the first place.
Conclusion: Empowering people through awareness, information and education using appropriate tools in the field of waste management can be helpful and practical. Coherent and purposeful management for waste management and success in improving environmental issues in the study area requires specific methods and strategic plans. Therefore, it is necessary to take the necessary planning and measures in this regard. It is also recommended to use the participation of people and NGOs to separate at the source and to organize informal activities of collection and recycling of materials in recycling programs, while it is necessary for municipalities, organizations and affiliated bodies. Assist the government in providing the facilities and equipment needed for rural waste management.


Abdoli, M. and Hagollahi, A., 2010. Rural Waste Processing and Recovery Properties (Case Study: Iran), Journal of Environmental Studies. 57, 105-112 (In Persian with English abstract).
Akbarzadeh, A., Tala, H., Manshoori, M. and Bashiri, S., 2008. A Survey of Rural Waste Management in Rural Areas of Tehran. In Proceedings of the 12th National Conference on Environmental Health of Iran, 12th-14th April, Tehran, Iran.
Al-Khatib, I.A., Kontogianni, S., Nabaa, H.A., Alshami, N. and Al-Sari, M.I., 2015. Public perception of hazardousness caused by current trends of municipal solid waste management. Waste Management. 36, 323–330.
Amui, A., Asgharnia, H. and Khodadadi, A., 2007. Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Rural Solid Waste in Babol. Journal of Babol University of Medical Sciences. 10(5), 80-74 (In Persian with English abstract).
Anabestani, A. and Raisi, A., 2016. The role of waste management on improving development conditions in rural settlements (Case: Sarbok section, Qasr Ghand city). Journal Planning Quarterly. 7(2), 93-112 (In Persian with English abstract).
Azmi, A. and Motiei Langroudi, A., 2010. An overview of environmental problems in Iranian villages and solutions to these problems. Housing and Rural Environment. 30, 101-115 (In Persian with English abstract).
Cheraghi, M., Sobhan Ardakani, S., Lorestani, B. and Tayebi, L., 2010. Physical Processing of Agricultural Waste in Hamadan City. In Proceedings of the 5th National Conference on Waste Management, 2nd-23th March , Mashhad, Iran.
Couth, R. and Trois, C., 2010. Carbon emissions Reduction Strategies in Africa from Improved Waste Management: A review. Waste Management. 30(11), 2336-2346.
Habibi, S., 2018. Investigation of rural waste management strategies (Case Study: Villages of Chabaksar Ward). MS.c. Thesis. University of Guilan, Guilan, Iran.  
 Josie, S. Dehgani, A. and Zarei, M., 2012. Presentation of SWOT strategic waste management strategic plan (Case Study: Minab county). Journal of Environmental Studies. 38(4), 108-93 (In Persian with English abstract).
Khosravani, F., Pezshkirad, G. and Farhadian, H., 2014. Investigation of agricultural waste and waste Providing management solutions to achieve goals sustainable development. Journal of Science Promotion. 25, 1-18 (In Persian with English abstract).
Ministry of Interior Organization of Municipalities and County Councils, 2018. Center for Specialized Studies and Services of Urban and Rural Institute for Humanities and Social Sciences Academic Jihad. 
Minosepehr, M., Karimi Jashni, A. and Taleb, N., 2011. Investigating the current status of municipal and rural solid waste management in Fars province and presenting appropriate solutions. In Proceedings of the 5th National Conference and Specialized Exhibition of Environmental Engineering, Tehran, Iran.
Mirtrabi, M., Shafi, Sh and Rezvanfar, A., 2013. The use of information sources and communication channels in the process of adopting comprehensive rural waste management. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources. 66 (3), 329-339 (In Persian with English abstract).
Safari Elmuti, P. and Shams, A., 2015. Analysis and Problems of Rural Waste Management Problems in Qazvin,. Journal of Rural Development Strategies. 3(1), 77-94 (In Persian with English abstract).
Safari, A., 2013. Environmental hazard analysis and waste management strategies in rural areas, Case study of Central Ejrood Village, Grammy County. Journal of Space Economics and Rural Development. 2 (3), 91-71 (In Persian with English abstract).
Shaterabadi, Sh., 2018. Investigating the rural waste management based on public participation: A case study of Dorod Faraman Village in Kermanshah. MS.c. Thesis. Payame Noor University, Kermanshah, Iran.
Tian, M., Gao, J., Zhengb, Z. and Yang, Z., 2012. The Study on the ecological footprint of rural solid waste disposal-example in Yuhong District of Shenyang. Procedia Environmental Sciences. 16, 95– 101.
Zhang, D., Tan, S.K. and Gersberg, R.M., 2010. Municipal solid waste management in China: Status, problems and challenges. Journal of Environmental Management. 91, 1623- 1633.