somaye arazi; mohammadhosein irannezhadparizi; Ahad sotoudeh; bahman kiani
Background: Landscape of an area consists of uniform parts of that land that have components of patchs, passages and bed of land landscape. Since the density and distribution of vegetation in the landscape of the land of the passage of time is affected by many variables and changes. Variety and uniformity ...
Background: Landscape of an area consists of uniform parts of that land that have components of patchs, passages and bed of land landscape. Since the density and distribution of vegetation in the landscape of the land of the passage of time is affected by many variables and changes. Variety and uniformity of plants studies the effectiveness of the indicators of richness, diversity and uniformity of vegetation from the structure of the landscape.Materials and Methods: In this study, two variables of size and shape of patchs on the structure of the Adoroshk watershed were selected because these two variables are known as important components in the planning of areas for conservation purposes. For this purpose, first the identification and preparation of the map of the structure of the land address of Adoroshk was performed and then the desired map in Arc GIS 10.3 software with suitable image format and ready to enter FRAGSTATS 4.2 software and then two variables of ratio of environment to area and size The patchs in the structure of Adoroshk land were calculated. Data obtained from identification and counting of vegetation in the area, which were the result of linear transect and plot method, were also entered in SPSS software environment and through Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Hill, Brillouin and MacArthur Plant diversity was measured using the Margalf, Mann-Henick index of plant richness in each spot of the habitat. The Pilo, Alatalo and Hip indices were also used to measure species uniformity. The correlation between the variables was determined from Pearson correlation.Results and Discussion: In this study, 60 plant species were identified and counted in 338 plots and the findings of this study indicate a significant relationship between the two physical variables of size and shape of habitat spots and richness. The diversity and uniformity of rangeland plant species in the Adoroshk watershed.Conclusion: The priority of paying attention to circular patchs that have a minimum ratio of environment to area in the design and management of Adoroshk watershed was proven during the planning and protection of vegetation.
Nasim Kheirkhah Ghehi; Bahram Malek Mohammadi; Hamidreza Jafari
Introduction: Landscape connectivity plays an essential role in the conservation of protected areas. The Alborz wild sheep (Ovis orientalis × Ovis vignei) is the dominant species in Varjin Protected Area. The population of the species has been decreased during the last 20 years due to habitat loss ...
Introduction: Landscape connectivity plays an essential role in the conservation of protected areas. The Alborz wild sheep (Ovis orientalis × Ovis vignei) is the dominant species in Varjin Protected Area. The population of the species has been decreased during the last 20 years due to habitat loss and fragmentation. So far, many studies have been done on the environmental impact assessment of urban area developments on the protected area, but there is still a lack of habitat connectivity and quality analysis in the area. Based on the spatial location of Varjin Protected Area, connectivity analysis can help conservation planners to identify key patches and corridors that more than others, contribute to upholding species dispersal. The aim of this research is to prioritize habitat patches for conservation by analyzing the connectivity of the habitat patches and considering habitat quality as the second important factor in species distribution. Applying this method could lead to better conservation prioritization between habitat patches.Material and methods: Landsat 7 and 8 satellite images have been used as inputs for the Habitat Quality model and Connectivity analysis. The connectivity metric was analyzed by calculating the probability of connectivity (dPC) and betweenness centrality (dBC) at different spatial scales of landscape and patch. All the analyses have been done in Graphab open-source software using graph theory and applying network analysis containing nodes and edges. The threshold was pre-defined for the species, and all the calculations were based on Euclidian distance. This research used the InVEST Habitat Quality model to analyze the spatial status of habitat quality. Finally, spatial analysis was performed by ArcGIS 10.4 and the maps were classified based on natural breaks.Results and discussion: Results demonstrated that the value of dPC was between 0 to 0.796, and the value of dBC varied from 0 to 7.58E+11. Different importance values have been obtained for all 23 patches. This suggested that patches 1 and 4 showed the highest dBC and dPC metric values. The values of InVEST habitat quality decreased in the south and northeast of the area, respectively, due to proximity to urban areas and other threats. Patches with good performance in improving connectivity and higher habitat quality values were identified. By overlaying the output values of the maps, prioritized patches were recognized and suggested to be placed under protection.Conclusion: Patches with a high level of connectivity and habitat quality were located in the east and southeast of the region. This research has taken a novel step toward conservation by using connectivity analysis and habitat quality as an ecosystem service in protected areas. Landscape and patch scales as two spatial indices can be used in other regions and for other essential species. As the Varjin Protected Area is located between two important ecological areas, Lar National Park and the Central Alborz Protected Area, the priority of patches would be changed by a great extent when taking those areas under consideration.
Hadi Nadimi; Mohammad Reza Faghihi Habib Abadi; Mohammad Taghi Nazarpour
Volume 11, Issue 1 , April 2013
Today's industrial and technological development has led human beings further away from nature. However, man has always been influenced by nature, and human nature has naturalistic tendencies. Many studies indicate a direct correlation between the levels of enjoyment of natural scenery and people’s ...
Today's industrial and technological development has led human beings further away from nature. However, man has always been influenced by nature, and human nature has naturalistic tendencies. Many studies indicate a direct correlation between the levels of enjoyment of natural scenery and people’s happiness. Various studies mention the benefits of natural landscapes as a therapy for daily stress, anxiety and depression. A student residence is often among the first environments a student experiences away from home. He/she will be required to spend a lot of time at this location and, therefore, its design and location are extrememly important for student wellbeing. A more attractive environment will increase comfort and, thus, learning productivity.The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the landscape and design of residential environments on student satisfaction. To this end, the female student residences of the Hakim Sabzevari Sabzevar University were used as a case study. The methods used in this study are from the library and in the field. Using stratified sampling and random distribution, 663 questionnaires with three residential types, including a linear scheme, a central courtyard scheme and a flat scheme, each of which has a different view of nature and green space, were completed. The hypothesis of this study is that the environmental design and suitable landscaping of student residences can have a great effect on the wellbeing and comfort of students who live there, and lead to an increase in their sense of security and their feeling of “belonging”. The results indicate that the majority of students prefer to see natural environments, untapped visions and perspectives, natural horizons, sunrises and sunsets, and green spaces around the residences. Therefore, it is suggested that natural landscape architecture should be an important principle in the design of student residential areas.
Seyyed Ebrahim Hashemi; Mohsen Kafi; Seyyed Mahmoud Hashemi; Mahdi Khansefid
Volume 6, Issue 3 , April 2009
The city is identified as altered natural environment by excessive changes in nature and increasing presence of manmade structures. Urban green spaces are remnants of nature in this environment and play an important role in ascending the level of life quality in the city. In this study the effects of ...
The city is identified as altered natural environment by excessive changes in nature and increasing presence of manmade structures. Urban green spaces are remnants of nature in this environment and play an important role in ascending the level of life quality in the city. In this study the effects of urban sprawl on quantity of urban green spaces in region 2 of Tehran municipality were studied comparatively in 1989 and 2002 using aerial photos interpretations and geographical information systems (GIS). The studies indicate a considerable decrease in urban green spaces with a more intensity in the northern parts of the region. The sub-region 8th had the greatest amount of decrease among 9 sub-regions and 6th sub-region had the minimum rate of decrease. Two general strategies are concluded from the results of this study: 1) the priority of conservation and support of the existing green and open spaces 2) establishing new green spaces in some parts of the region which benefit less environmental quality.