Document Type : Original Article


Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Nowadays, the urban sprawl phenomenon has become one of the most important concerns of planners and policymakers. The lack of attention to this phenomenon has led to irreparable consequences such as threatening natural resources, and social, economic, physical, and environmental constraints and disadvantages. In order to better understand such a model, it is necessary to evaluate and identify the socioeconomic factors affecting it.
Material and methods: The methodology in this research was a combination of descriptive and explanatory research, the type of research was applied, and its approach was considered quantitative and qualitative. Data collection was done using library and field survey methods. Also, remote sensing and Landsat satellite images of the studied area during the mentioned period was used. In addition, to analyze Zanjan’s urban sprawl, the method of classified classification, land use classification and cross-feasibility model, the extent of changes in different land uses, and the Holdern model were used. In order to predict the trend of changes and to investigate possible changes in land uses for the 2026 horizon, the Markov chains model was used.
Results and discussion: In the studied area, the results of the research indicated that over the past three decades, with uneven development in Zanjan City, the urban area has almost tripled. Theoretical analysis of Zanjan’s urban sprawl according to Heldern model indicated significant urban sprawl domination in the physical development of Zanjan, which always had more effect than the population growth. During the studied years, Zanjan’s urban area had a multiplier increase that in contrast to this expansion, had a significant decrease in orchards and agriculture. In this situation, what made a big difference were the changes in orchard and agricultural land uses. Translation errorThere were many factors involved in this matter, most notably the growth of urban population and urban sprawl.
 Conclusion: Based on the forecast for 2026, the probability of land use changes to the city over the next 10 years is significant, during which Translation errorthe amount of built-up areas in Zanjan will reach 6311.88 hectares. It should be noted that orchards and Translation erroraaaagricultural lands have only a 23.56% possibility of conversion to urban areas. Therefore, necessary actions are required to prevent over-urbanization. In developed countries, considering the importance of sustainable development, environmental protection and the efficient use of various sources, smart growth, and urban development are highly important. Moreover, preventing the excessive growth of the city's boundaries, the high-ranking agenda, and the use of the compact city pattern, as well as the direction of the expansion of the city towards regolith and abandoned lands with the aim of preventing constructions in agricultural land can be considered.


Ahadnezhad Reveshty, M. and Hosseini, A., 2012. Estimation and prediction of horizontal changes and distribution of cities using multi-temporal satellite imagery and geographic information system the case study of Tabriz city during 1363-1389. Research and Urban Planning Journal. 2(4), 1-20.
Anas, A., 1999. The costs and benefits of fragmented metropolitan governance and the new regionalist policies. Planning and Markets. 22(2), 289-317.
Barton, H., 1990. Local Global Planning. The Planner. 26, 12–15.
Beck, R., Kolankiewicz, L. and Camarota, S.A., 2003. Outsmarting smart growth. Center for Immigration Studies, Washington DC, USA.
Bhat, P.A., Shafiq, M., Mir, A.A. and Ahmed, P., 2017. Urban sprawl and its impact on land use/land cover dynamics of Dehradun City, India. International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment. 6(2), 513-521.
Burge, G.S., Trosper, T.L., Nelson, A.C., Juergensmeyer, J.C. and Nicholas, J.C., 2013. Can development impact fees help mitigate urban sprawl? Journal of the American Planning Association. 79(3), 235-248.
Dawson, R., 2007. Re-engineering cities: a framework for adaptation to global change. Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences. 365(1861), 3085–98.
Ewing, R., 1997. Is Los Angeles-style Sprawl desirable? Journals of the American Planning Association. 63(1), 107-126.
Ewing, R. and Hamidi, S., 2014. Measuring urban sprawl and validating sprawl measures. National Institutes of Health and Smart Growth America, Washington, DC., USA.
Ewing, R., Pendall, R. and Chen, D., 2003. Measuring sprawl and its transportation impacts. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 1831(1), 175-183. 
Ewing, R., Schieber, R.A., and Zegeer, C.V. (2003). Urban sprawl as a risk factor in motor vehicle occupant and pedestrian fatalities. American Journal of Public Health. 93(9), 1541-1545.
Ewing, R., Schmid, T., Killingsworth, R., Zlot, A. and Raudenbush, S., 2008. Relationship between urban sprawl and physical activity, obesity, and morbidity. In: Marzluff J.M. et al. (eds) Urban Ecology. Springer, Boston, MA. 567-582
Foran, M., 2009. Expansive Discourses: Urban Sprawl in Calgary, 1945-1978. Athabasca University Press, Canada.
Frenkel, A. and Ashkenazi, M., 2008. The integrated sprawl index: measuring the urban landscape in Israel. The Annals of Regional Science. 42(1), 99-121.
Handy, S.L., Boarnet, M.G., Ewing, R. and Killingsworth, R.E., 2002. How the built environment affects physical activity: views from urban planning. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 23(2), 64-73.
Jensen, J.R., 2005. Introductory Digital Image Processing: A Remote Sensing Perspective. Prentice-Hall Inc., USA.
Karam, A. and Mohamadi, A., 2010. Evaluation and zoning of land suitability for physical development of Karaj city and peripheral lands based on natural factors and AHP method. Quarterly Journal of Natural Geography. 88, 59-74.
Kelly-Schwartz, A.C., Stockard, J., Doyle, S. and Schlossberg, M., 2004. Is sprawl unhealthy? A multilevel analysis of the relationship of metropolitan sprawl to the health of individuals. Journal of Planning Education and Research. 24(2), 184-196.
Khalili Araghi, M., 1998. Understanding the effective factors in the expansion of the Tehran city. Tehran University Academic Press. Tehran, Iran.
Majd, A. and Zibari, M., 2014. Familiarity with remote sensing and application in natural resources (satellite information, aerial photography, space). Institute of Printing and Publishing, University of Tehran, Iran.
Mamun, A.A., Mahmood, A. and Rahman, M., 2013. Identification and monitoring the change of land use pattern using remote sensing and GIS: A case study of Dhaka City. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering. 6(2), 20-28.
Mishra, M., Mishra, K.K., Subudhi, A.P., Phil, M. and Cuttack, O., 2006. Urban sprawl mapping and land use change analysis using remote sensing and GIS. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Deheradun, Uttarakhand, India.
Rabiei, H., Ziyaeiyan, P. and Alimohamadi, A., 2006. Recovery and alteration of land use and land cover in Isfahan by remote sensing and geographic information system. Quarterly Journal of Human Sciences. 84, 41-54.
Razaviyan, M., Kanouni, R. and Yarmoradi, K., 2017. Urban Environment. Nashre Elm Academic Press Inc., Tehran, Iran.
Razaviyan, M. and Mirzayi Ghale, F., 2017. Spatio-Economic Planning and Entrepreneurship in Iran. First ed. Jahad Daneshgahi Shahid Beheshti University Academic Press, Tehran, Iran.
Sarafi, M., Tavkioliniya, J. and Mohamadiyan, H., 2015. New Thoughts in Urban Planning. First ed. Gadyani Academic Press Inc., Tehran, Iran.
Sharifzadegan, M. and Nouri, S., 2015. Investigating the Urban Sprawl Social Damage in Urban Planning the case study of Sanandaj city. MSc. Thesis, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
Sonde, P., Balamwar, S. and Ochawar, R.S., 2020. Urban sprawl detection and analysis using unsupervised classification of high-resolution image data of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust area in India. Remote Sensing Applications: Society and
Environment. 17, 100282.
Soule, D.C., 2006. Urban sprawl a comprehensive reference guide. Defining and managing urban sprawl. Greenwood Press.
Squires, G.D. ed., 2002. Urban sprawl: Causes, consequences, & policy responses. The Urban Institute.
Sudhira, H.S. and Ramachandra, T.V., 2007. Characterizing urban sprawl from remote sensing data and using landscape metrics. In Proceedings of 10th international conference on computers in urban planning and urban management. Available online at:
Sun, C., Wu, Z.F., Lv, Z.Q., Yao, N. and Wei, J.B., 2013. Quantifying different types of urban growth and the change dynamic in Guangzhou using multi-temporal remote sensing data. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation. 21, 409-417.
Sun, L., Wei, J., Duan, D.H., Guo, Y.M., Yang, D.X., Jia, C. and Mi, X.T., 2016. Impact of landuse and land-cover change on urban air quality in representative cities of China. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics. 142, 43-54.
Taghvayi, M. and Sorayi, M., 2005. Horizontally extend of cities and existing land capacities the case study of Yazd city. Quarterly Journal of Geographic Research. 83, 187-210.
Vahediyan Beygi, L., Pourahmad, A. and Seyfodini, F., 2012. The effect of physical development of Tehran on land use change in region 5. New Thoughts in Human Geography Journal. 90, 29-46.
Wakode, H.B., Baier, K., Jha, R. and Azzam, R., 2014. Analysis of urban growth using Landsat TM/ETM data and GIS-a case study of Hyderabad, India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 7(1), 109-121.
Ziyari, K. and Mahdnezhad, H., 2010. Shout, Avoidance, Basics and Urban Planning Techniques. First ed. Chabahar International University Academic Press, Chabahar, Iran.
Ziyari, K., 2010. Basics and Urban Planning Techniques. First ed. Chabahar International University Academic Press, Chabahar, Iran.