نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه سیستم اطلاعات مکانی ، دانشکده مهندسی نقشه برداری، دانشگاه خواجه نصیرالدین طوسی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
آلودگی صوتی یکی از آلودگی‌های مهم و رو به رشد شهرهای بزرگ است. به‌منظور کنترل و مدیریت اثرات آلودگی صوتی، سنجش آن امری ضروری است. لذا در این تحقیق پهنه‌بندی و مدلسازی آلودگی صوتی با روش درونیابی کریجینگ در یکی از مناطق پرجمعیت تهران یعنی منطقه 16 انجام گردید.
مواد و روش‌ها:
در این تحقیق در ابتدا 8 ایستگاه برای پیش مطالعه انتخاب شد. در مرحله بعد 46 ایستگاه در منطقه مورد مطالعه انتخاب و تراز معادل صوت در سه بازه‌ی زمانی صبح، ظهر و شب برای هر ایستگاه، جهت تعیین تراز آلودگی صوتی اندازه‌گیری شد. همچنین یکی از انواع کاربری شبکه معابر منطقه 16 یعنی بزرگراه شهید رجایی انتخاب و تراز شدت صوت در فواصل مختلف جهت پهنه‌بندی و مدلسازی آلودگی صوتی آن بزرگراه اندازه‌گیری شد. سپس مدلی جهت پیش‌بینی تراز شدت صوت در فواصل مختلف از بزرگراه ارائه شد. جهت بررسی درستی مدل ارائه شده، یک بزرگراه دیگر مورد بررسی قرار گرفت و آزمون تست مقایسه‌ای بین مقادیر اندازه‌گیری شده و پیش‌بینی شده انجام گرفت.
نتایج و بحث:
درصد خطای بین مقادیر پیش‌بینی‌شده و اندازه‌گیری‌شده بسیار ناچیز بوده و درنتیجه مدل ارائه شده را می‌توان برای ارزیابی آلودگی سایر بزرگراه‌ها مورد استفاده قرار داد. نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از مرحله اصلی این تحقیق نشان داد که حداکثر میانگین تراز معادل صوت 83.5714 دسی‌بل مربوط به بزرگراه‌هاست همچنین تا فاصله‌ی 30 متری از بزرگراه برای کاربری مسکونی مناسب نیست. حداقل میانگین تراز صوت 58 دسی‌بل مربوط به مناطق مسکونی هست.
نتیجه‌گیری:
دیگر نتایج این تحقیق حاکی از آن بوده است که درکل ایستگاه‌های سنجش صدا به‌خصوص در شبکه معابر میزان میانگین تراز معادل صدای اندازه‌گیری شده بیش ‌از حد استاندارد روز ایران هست. با توجه به آلودگی صوتی بالای منطقه، راهکارهای ارائه‌شده جهت کنترل آلودگی صوتی استفاده از دیواره‌های صوتی در بزرگراه‌ها و ایجاد فضای سبز بیشتر در مناطق مستعد آلودگی هست.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of noise pollution in region 16 of Tehran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatema Rahimi
  • Abolghasem Sadeghi Niaraki
  • Mostafa Ghodousi

Department of Geospatial Information Systems, Faculty of Geodesy & Geomatics Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Noise pollution is one of the most important and growing pollutions in large cities. Measuring sound pollution is an essential step to control and manage its effects. Therefore in this research, zoning and modeling of noise pollution was carried out in one of the densely populated areas of Tehran, region 16. In this study, at first eight stations were selected to study area.
Material and methods:
At the next stage, 46 stations were selected in the studied area and the equivalent level of sound was measured for each station in three periods: in the morning, at noon and at night; and results were used to determine the level of sound pollution. In addition, one of pathways of transit network of area 16, i.e. Shahid Rajaei Highway was selected and noise intensity was measured at different intervals for zoning and modeling of noise pollution of that highway. Then, a model was proposed to predict the level of noise intensity at different distances from the highway. To verify the accuracy of the proposed model, another highway was investigated and a comparison test was performed between measured and predicted values.
Results and discussion:
The percentage error between predicted and measured values is very negligible and thus the proposed model can be used to evaluate the pollution of other highways. The results obtained from the main stage of this study revealed that the maximum average equivalent level of sound in highway is 83.5714 Db and highway side until 30 m is not suitable for residential use. The minimum average sound level allowed for residential areas is 58 db.
Conclusion:
Other results of this study indicate that in all sound measurement stations in transit network, the mean measured equivalent level of sound is more than accepted standard in Iran. Due to high noise pollution in the area under study, the proposed solutions to control noise pollution are to use sound walls on highways and to create more green spaces in areas prone to pollution.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Noise pollution
  • Equivalent sound level
  • Noise intensity
  • Zoning
  • Modeling

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