Document Type : Original Article


Agricultural Engineering Research Department, East Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Tabriz, Iran


In all countries, agricultural production is dependent on energy, especially fossil fuels. About 10 to 20 percent of the total energy used in developed countries is consumed in food production. Efficient use of energy in the agricultural sector is one of the fundamental necessities for sustainable agriculture development, because increasing energy efficiency will save fossil fuels and reduce air pollution. In addition, the global energy crisis and the need for targeted energy consumption in agricultural production make the research on energy efficiency analysis in wheat production necessary. Energy efficiency values in wheat production in the east of Urmia Lake have not been assessed so far. Therefore, the present study was conducted with the aim of evaluating future research of energy indices, including net energy, energy efficiency, specific energy, and energy productivity as well as providing suitable and applicable solutions for improving energy indices in wheat production.
Material and methods:
In this research, energy productivity in two conservational and conventional tillage systems in wheat production in the east of Urmia Lake was evaluated for two years by measuring and collecting data. Energy indices such as net energy, energy efficiency, specific energy, and energy efficiency were determined in wheat production. According to the current conditions of Lake Urmia, water resources were limited and, therefore, the value of irrigation water was significant from the environmental and economic point of view. Consequently, in order to rebuild future conditions of energy consumption in wheat production, irrigation scenarios were applied as a future study strategy. Irrigation management scenarios included three conditions of full, deficit and excessive irrigation in wheat farms.
Results and discussion:
Energy productivity from conservational and conventional tillage systems were 210 and 170 g MJ-1, respectively. Future study scenarios were comprised of three conditions of full, deficit and over-irrigation in wheat farms. The energy consumed to produce wheat with the first (full and over-irrigation) and second (deficit irrigation) scenarios were 18.5 and 17.7 GJ ha-1, respectively. The energy produced of wheat grains by the first and second group scenarios was respectively 67.5 and 31.8 GJ ha-1. The average energy efficiency in grain production with first and second groups was 3.7 and 1.8 and energy productivity was 253 and 125 g MJ-1, respectively. The effective strategies for increasing energy productivity in wheat production in the northwest of the country may include the application of light-weighted machinery, selection of the appropriate amount of seeds, and enhancement of fertilizer and water use efficiency.
Results revealed that in terms of energy indices, the application of the conservational tillage system is preferable over conventional tillage in wheat grain production. However, the energy indices by two tillage systems were not statistically different in wheat production. It seems that the appropriate practices of conservation tillage by appropriate selection of equipment would improve the energy indices in wheat production.


  1. Abdollahpour, S.H. and Zaree, S., 2010. Evaluation of wheat energy balance under rainfed farming in Kermanshah. Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Science. 20(2), 98-106. (In Persian with English abstract).
  2. Ahmadi, M. and Agha-Ali Khani, M. 2012. Analysis of energy use in cotton production in Golestan for suggesting procedures to enhance resources productivity. Journal of Agroecology. 4(2), 151-158. (In Persian with English abstract).
  3. Anonymous. 1993. Iranian comprehensive water plan. The plainś development features. V (1): North and Azarbaijan Watersheds. Jamab consulting Company. 288pp. (In Persian with English abstract).
  4. Anonymous. 2014. Crop production features (2012-2013) in Iran. Agricultural Ministry. Islamic Republic of Iran, pp. 167 (In Persian with English abstract).
  5. Canakci, M., Topakci, M., Akinci, I. and Ozmerzi. A. 2005. Energy use pattern of some field crops and vegerable production: Case study for Antalya Region. Turkey. Energy. Convers Manage. 46, 655-666.
  6. Erdal, G., Esengun, K., Erial, H., and Gunduz, O., 2007. Energy use and economic analysis of sugerbeet production in Tokat province of Turkey. Energy. 32, 35-41.
  7. Farshi, A.A., Shariati, M.R., Jaroallahi, R., Ghaemi, M.R., Shahabifar, M., and Tavallaei, M.M. 1997. An estimate of water requirement of main field crops and orchards in Iran, I: Field crops. Agricultural Education, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization of Iran. Karaj, Iran, pp. 567 (In Persian with English abstract).
  8. Ghasemi Mobtaker, H., Keyhani, A., Mohammadi, A., Rafiee, S., and Akram, A. 2010. Sensitivity analysis of energy inputs for barley production in Hamedan on Iran. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 137:367-372. (In Persian with English abstract).
  9. Heydargholinezhad Kanari, M. and Hassanzadeh Ghorot Tappeh, A. 2003. Evaluation of energy balance in rainfed wheat in Mazandaran. Journal of Pazhohesh and Sazandeghi, 58(1), 63-65. (In Persian with English abstract).
  10. Koga, N. 2008. An energy balance under a conventional crop rotation system in northern Japan: Perspectives on fuel ethanol production from suger beet. Agric, Ecosyst. Environ, 125, 101-110. (In Persian with English abstract).
  11. Koocheki, A., Hosseini, M. 1994. Energy efficiency in agricultural ecosystems. Uni. Mashhad public. 299pp. (In Persian with English abstract).
  12. Mandal, K. G., Saha, K. P., Ghhosh, P. K., Hati, K. M., and Bandyopadhyay, K. K. 2002. Bioenergy and economic analysis of Soybean based crop production systems in Central India. Biomass and Bioenergy. 23: 337-345.
  13. Mani, I., Kumar. P., Panwar, J. S., and Kant, K. 2007. Variation in energy consumption in production of wheat-maize with varying altitudes in Hilly Regions of Himachal Paradesh, India. Energy, 32: 2336-2339.
  14. Leach, G., 1976. Energy and food production. IPC Science and Technology Press Ltd.
  15. Hatirli, S.A., Ozkan, B. and Fert, C., 2005. An econometric analysis of energy input–output in Turkish agriculture. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 9(6), 608-623.
  16. Pervanchon, F., Bockstaller, C., and Girardin, P. 2002. Assessment of energy use in arable farming systems by means of an agro-ecological indicator: the energy indicator. Agric. Syst. 72, 149-172.
  17. Piringer, G., and Steinberg, L. J. 2006. Re-evaluation of energy use in wheat production in the United States. J. Ecol, 10: 149-167.
  18. Raee Jadidi, M., Homayounifar, M., Sobohi Sabiuni, M., and Kheradmand, V. 2010. Investigation of energy efficiency and productivity in tomato production. Journal of Agricultural Economics and Development, 24 (3): 363-370. (In Persian with English abstract)
  19. Rajaby, M. H., Soltani, A., Zeinali, E. and Soltani, E. 2012. Evaluation of energy use in wheat production in Gorgan. J. of plant production. 19(3), 143-171. (In Persian with English abstract).
  20. Rathke, G. W., and Diepenbrock, W. 2006. Energy balance of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) cropping as related to nitrogen supply and preceding crop. Europ. J. Agron. 24, 35-44.
  21. Sing, H., Sing, A. K. Kushwala, H. L., and Sing, A. 2007. Energy consumption pattern of wheat production in India. Energy. 32, 1848-1854.
  22. Tabatabaeefar, A., Emamzadeh, H., Ghasemi Varnamkhasti, M., Rahimzadeh, R. and Karimi, M. 2009. Comparison of energy of tillage systems in wheat production. Energy. 34, 41-45.
  23. Tipi, T., Cetil, B. and Vardar, A. 2009. An analysis of energy use and input costs for wheat production in Turkey. J. Agric. Environ. 7, 352-356.
  24. Uhlin, H. 1998. Why energy productivity is increasing An I-O analysis of Swedish agriculture. Agric. Syst. 56, 443-465.
  25. Valadiani, A., Hassanzadeh Gort Tapeh, A. and Valadiani, A. 2005. Evaluation of energy balance in dryland wheat farms in East Azarbaijan and its effect on environment. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 15(2), 1-12. (In Persian with English abstract).
  26. Witney, B. 1995. Choosing and using farm machines. Land Technology Ltd, UK.