Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Seafood Science and Technology, Faculty of Environment and Fishery,Tajan High Education Institute, Qaemshahr, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Engineering Water and Wastewater, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Fish processing industry produces huge amounts of solid waste and wastewater. This wastewater consists of preliminary processing of the raw fish, washing the plant, and raw offal products (e.g., blood and viscera). The high-fat content of industrial wastewater causes problems in treatment and disposal and raises environmental crises. The purpose of this study is to select the best method for organizing a wastewater treatment in fish processing plant based on the most widely used wastewater management technologies worldwide.
Material and methods:
This research was done by the AHP method. Based on the general conditions in fish wastewater treatment plants in industrial estates and expert judgments, and by using technical, economic, environmental, and administrative criteria, the processes were carried out. Treatment of wastewater included trickling filter, aeration lagoon, anaerobic digestion, and active sludge. The obtained results were assessed by the Expert Choice software.
Results and discussion:
According to our results, the best method was the active sludge method with a score of 0.417 and after that, aeration lagoon, anaerobic digestion and trickling filter with a score of 0.284, 0.264 and 0.052, respectively, were the best choices based on the expert's opinion.
According to the technical, managerial, environmental and economic criteria and sub-criteria, this study showed that the best method for wastewater treatment in a fish processing plant was the active sludge.


  1. Anagnostopoulos, K., M. Gratziou and A. Vavatsikos., 2007. Using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process for selecting wastewater facilities at prefecture level. European Water. 19(20), 15-24.
  2. Ashtiani, E. F., S. Jamshidi, H. Niksokhan and A. F. Ashtiani., 2015. Value index, a novel decision making approach for waste load allocation. Int J Environ Chem Ecol Geol Geophys Eng. 9, 624-628.
  3. Bensadok, K., M. Belkacem and G. Nezzal., 2007. Treatment of cutting oil/water emulsion by coupling coagulation and dissolved air flotation. Desalination. 206(1-3),440-448.
  4. Cao, L., W. Wang, Y. Yang, C. Yang, Z. Yuan, S. Xiong and J. Diana.,2007. Environmental impact of aquaculture and countermeasures to aquaculture pollution in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research-International. 14, 452-462.
  5. Chowdhury, P., T. Viraraghavan and A. Srinivasan., 2010. Biological treatment processes for fish processing wastewater–A review. Bioresource Technology. 101(2), 439-449.
  6. Dapena-Mora, A., J. Campos, A. Mosquera-Corral and R. Mendez ., 2006. Anammox process for nitrogen removal from anaerobically digested fish canning effluents. Water Science and Technology. 53, 265-274.
  7. Ertz, D., J. Atwell and E. Forsht, 1977. Dissolved air flotation treatment of seafood processing wastes--an assessment." Environmental Protection Technology Series EPA (USA).
  8. Fuentes, L., B. Sanders, A. Lorenzo and S. Alber., 2004. AWARENET: Agro-Food Wastes Minimisation and Reduction Network. Total Food. 3, 233-244.
  9. Huang, I. B., J. Keisler and I. Linkov.,2011. Multi-criteria decision analysis in environmental sciences: ten years of applications and trends. Science of the total environment. 409(19), 3578-3594.
  10. Jamshidi, S., M. Ardestani and M. H. Niksokhan., 2016 a. A seasonal waste load allocation policy in an integrated discharge permit and reclaimed water market." Water Policy. 18, 235-250.
  11. Jamshidi, S., M. Ardestani and M. H. Niksokhan., 2016 b. Upgrading wastewater treatment plants based on reuse demand, technical and environmental policies (a case study). Environmental Energy and Economic Research. 1, 101-112.
  12. Jamshidi, S., H. Niksokhan and M. Ardestani., 2016 c. Wastewater Reuse, an Opportunity to Expand Nitrogen Discharge Permit Markets. Journal of Environmental Studies.
  13. Kalbar, P. P., S. Karmakar and S. R. Asolekar., 2012. Selection of an appropriate wastewater treatment technology: A scenario-based multiple-attribute decision-making approach. Journal of Environmental Management. 113, 158-169.
  14. Karimi, A., N. Mehrdadi, J. Hashemian, G. Nabi Bidhendi and R. Tavakkoli-Moghaddam ., 2010. Investigation of wastewater treatment plants of Iranُs industrial estates and proposed a suitable model for optimum wastewater treatment process selection, Thesis for degree of Ph. D in Environmental Engineering. Tehran University, Faculty of Environment. 2010, 56-61.
  15. Lim, J., T. Kim and S. Hwang ., 2003. Treatment of fish-processing wastewater by co-culture of Candida rugopelliculosa and Brachionus plicatilis. Water research. 37, 2228-2232.
  16. Lupatsch, I., 2003. Predicting nutrient flow in integrated aquaculture systems using a nutritional approach: comparison between gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus). Beyond Monoculture. EAS, Trondheim, Norway.
  17. Metcalf, E. and E. Eddy ., 2003. Wastewater engineering: treatment and reuse. McGrawHill. Inc., New York.
  18. Mianabadi, H. and A. Afshar .,2008. Multi attribute decision making to rank urban water supply schemes. Water & Wastewater Journal. 19, 34-45.
  19. Mines Jr, R. O. and R. R. Robertson., 2003. Treatability study of a seafood-processing wastewater. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A. 38(9), 1927-1937.
  20. Monzavi, M., 2014. Sewage treatment. Tehran, University of Tehran.
  21. Oyanedel, V., J. Garrido, J. Lema and R. Mendez .,2003. A membrane assisted hybrid bioreactor for the post treatment of an anaerobic effluent from a fish canning factory. Water Science and Technology. 48(6), 301-309.
  22. Parvathy, U., K. Rao, A. Jeyakumari and A. Zynudheen (2017). "Biological Treatment Systems for Fish Processing Wastewater-A Review." Nature Environment and Pollution Technology. 16, 447.
  23. Pophali, G. R., A. B. Chelani and R. S. Dhodapkar.,2011. Optimal selection of full scale tannery effluent treatment alternative using integrated AHP and GRA approach. Expert Systems with Applications. 38, 10889-10895.
  24. Quitain, A. T., N. Sato, H. Daimon and K. Fujie.,2001. Production of valuable materials by hydrothermal treatment of shrimp shells. Industrial & engineering chemistry research. 40, 5885-5888.
  25. Shahidi, A. and A. Torkashvand.,2008 . Investigating wastewater treatment methods. Water industry research.
  26. Tecle, A., M. Fogel and L. Duckstein.,1988. Multicriterion selection of wastewater management alternatives. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management. 114, 383-398.
  27. Tsagarakis, K., D. Mara and A. Angelakis.,2003. Application of cost criteria for selection of municipal wastewater treatment systems." Water, Air, & Soil Pollution. 142, 187-210.
  28. Wang, L. K., Y.-T. Hung, H. H. Lo and C. Yapijakis.,2004. Handbook of industrial and hazardous wastes treatment, CRC Press.
  29. Zeng, G., R. Jiang, G. Huang, M. Xu and J. Li.,2007. Optimization of wastewater treatment alternative selection by hierarchy grey relational analysis. Journal of environmental management. 82, 250-259.