Economic evaluation of environmental dust phenomenon damage (case of study: Ardakan city)

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Agricultural Economics, Ardakan University, Ardakan, Iran


One of the air pollution that has been witnessed in western and southwestern regions of recent times is the dust and dust phenomenon. Dust is one of the atmospheric phenomena that has adverse environmental effects and impacts. Dust storms have had many negative effects on health, economics, society and the environment, resulting in huge damage to human resources, health, industry, and especially agriculture. The purpose of this study is to quantify the tangible (market) and intangible (non-market) damages caused by the dust phenomenon in the city of Ardakan.
Materials and methods:
The data required in this study were obtained from the statistics and data recorded in Ardakan offices, as well as the completion of 244 double bounded dichotomous choice questionnaires in agricultural sector and 509 questionnaires in the air pollution and urban green area using 30 pre-tests and Michels And Carson in 2016. In this study, the tangible and intangible damages of dust are valued using the conditional valuation method and market price. Using the logit model, the factors that affect the willingness to pay are estimated for each section using Shazam 9 and math calculations using Maple Version 18 software.
Results and discussion:
The results of this study showed that income and education variables have a positive and significant effect on people's willingness to pay for air pollution and urban green space. The variables of age, number of households and gender have a negative and significant effect on people's willingness to pay for air pollution and urban green space against dust phenomena. In agricultural sector, variables such as age, number of employed people, education and income have a positive and significant effect on farmers' willingness to pay for agricultural products against dust phenomena. The total value of the damages against the dust phenomena to maintain air pollution is 33185478480 Rials, the maintenance of agricultural products 50431570000 Rials and the maintenance of green space against dust of 30736160140 Rials per year for the city of Ardakan. Also the tangible losses of dust phenomena in terms of increasing water consumption due to washing in dusty days is 2762736640 Rials, negative effect of dust on physical health and treatment costs and mortality due to asthma and bronchitis diseases 15548414040 Rials and negative effect The livestock sector and treatment costs and the lost cattle were calculated 131451400000 Rials using a market approach.
The results indicate that the total value of intangible damages is 114353208620 Rls and the tangible value of 149762550680 Rls in 2016 for the city of Ardakan. The value of willingness to pay people in agriculture was higher than other sectors. The livestock and poultry sector also has the highest figure among other tangible costs. Therefore, this estimate provides policy makers and authorities with the necessary guidance for controlling the effects of dust on human environments.


  1. Abedi, Z., Fatahi Ardakani, A., Hanifnejad, A.R. and Dashti Rahmatabadi, N., 2014. Groundwater valuation and quality preservation in Iran: The case of Yazd. Natural resources economics. International Journal Environmental Research. 1, 213-220. (In Persian with English abstract).
  2. Adamowitz, W., Louviere, J. and Swait, J., 1998. Introduction to attribute- based stated choice methods, Report submitted to resource valuation branch, damage assessment center, NOAA.
  3. Azizi, Gh., Shamsi Pour, A.A., Miri, M. and Safar Rad, T., 2012. Statistical analysis-consolidation of dust in the Midwest of Iran. Journal of Environmental Studies. 3, 123-134. (In Persian with English abstract).
  4. Danesh Jafari, D., Amade, H. and Khoun Siavashan, Sh., 2015. Estimation of Damage Caused by Hazard Facts on the Health of Individuals in Iran (Case Study: Khuzestan, Kermanshah, and Kurdistan Provinces). Journal of environmental studies. 3, 573-587. (In Persian with English abstract).
  5. Fatahi Ardakani, A., 2016. Estimating willingness to pay in order to prevent external intangible effects of dust in Yazd-Ardakan plain. International journal of environmental science and technology. 6,1489-1496.
  6. Fatahi Ardakani, A. Alavi, C. and Arab, M., 2017. The comparison of discrete payment vehicle methods (dichotomous choice) in improving the quality of the environment. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 7, 1409-1418.
  7. Fatahi Ardakani, A. and Torabi, F., 2012. Estimating willingness to pay in order to prevent external intangible effects of dust in Yazd-Ardakan plain. In Third National Conference on Wind Erosion and Dust Storms. (In Persian with English abstract).
  8. Fatemi, M., Dehghan, H. and Dehghani, Kh., 2015. Dangers of dust in Yazd province, Yazd Crisis Management department. (In Persian with English abstract).
  9. Fouladian, A. and Amade Shahnabadi, F., 2015. The study of environmental pollutants with an emphasis on the phenomenon of microorganisms, together with its socio-cultural-economic damaging effects, constitutes a threat to human health in Iran. In National conference on psychology, educational and social sciences. (In Persian with English abstract).
  10. Khaksar Astane, H., Kalate Arabi, W. and Sardar Shahraki, A., 2013. Estimate of willingness to pay visitors to the historical complex of burned city using conditional valuation method. Journal of Tourism Management Studies. 20, 167-184. (In Persian with English abstract).
  11. Mitchell, R.C. and Carson, R.T., 1989. Using Surveys to Value Public Goods: The Contingent Valuation Method. Washington, D.C: Resources for the Future.
  12. Neshat, A., 2016. Pricing and Consumption of Chemical Fertilizers with Emphasis on Environmental Quality (Case study, Varamin Plain). Ph.D. Thesis. Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University of Tehran. (In Persian with English abstract).
  13. Nezhad Kouraki, F. and Dehghan Ahmad Abadi, A., 2016. Environmental effects of dust. (In Persian with English abstract).
  14. Nourzade Hadad, M., Shahnavaz, M. and Gholami, A., 2016. Investigation of Damage Caused by Dust to Horticultural and Crop Products. In Second National Congress of the Development and Promotion of Agricultural Engineering and Soil Science in Iran. (In Persian with English abstract).
  15. Raei Jadidi, M. and Sobouhi Sabouni, M., 2012. Estimate of willingness to pay visitors to the Kurdest recreation village in East Azarbaijan province. Environmental sciences. 8, 47-56. (In Persian with English abstract).