The Water Pinch Model for Reusing Copper Processing Waste Water using Two Pollutants Simultaneously

Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


1 Prof., Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran

2 Ph.D.., Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran

3 MSc., Assessment and Land Use, Department of Environment and Energy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran


Today, reducing waste water as one of the greatest challenges we face in the industrial process and, since the wastewater is one of the major pollutants produced in that process, the ability to restore and reuse water and to reduce water consumption represents an important step towards overall waste water reduction. This article investigates the minimization of water consumption and wastewater in the copper industry and, specifically, in Unit Three of the Khatoon Abad copper complex. One conventional method and one new method named Water Pinch are described for this purpose. In the first, second and third modes, respectively, the TSS-TDS, Turbidity-TDS and TSS-Turbidity parameters were considered as the indicators. The results showed a saving in raw water consumption of 379, 22 and 401 m3/day (equal to 25, 1.46 and 26 %), respectively, which is a significant amount.


  1. Savelski M, Bagajewicz M. On the necessary conditions of optimality of water utilization systems in process plants with multiple contaminants. chemical engineering; 2003; 58: 5349 – 5362.
  2. Mann J.G, Liu Y.A. Industrial water reuse and wastewater minimization,McGraw Hill, New York. J. Int. Environmental Application & Science; 2010; 3(1): 43-50.
  3. Panjeshahi M.H, Mihandoost Sh. Optimizing water use and wastewater in petrochemical processes. Journal of Iran Energy; 2008;11: 18 – 35. [In Persian
  4. Prakotpol D, Srinophakun T. GA pinch: genetic algorithm toolbox for water pinch technology. Chemical engineering and processing; 2009; 31: 203-217.
  5. Bagajewicz M. A Review of recent design procedure for water networks in refineries and process plants, Chem. Eng; 2009; 24: 2093 – 2113.
  6. Mughees W, Al-Ahmad M, Naeem M, Minimizing fresh and wastewater using water pinch technique in petrochemical industries. International Journal of Environmental, Chemical, Ecological, Geological and Geophysical Engineering; 2013; 7: 917-923.
  7. Shahraki F, and et all. The development of linear models to minimize water consumption and wastewater water systems in the process industries. along with several pollutants, Monthly of scientific expertise and extension; 2008; 15: 2 – 11. [In Persian
  8. Khezri S.M, Lotfi F, Tabibian S. Water pinch analysis for water and wastewater minimization in Tehran oil refinery considering three contaminants. Journal of Environmental Science; 2010; 7: 281-290.
  9. Khezri S.M, Lotfi F, Tbibian S, Erfani Z. Application of water pinch technology for water and wastewater minimization in aluminum anodizing industries. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Tech; 2010; 12: 281-290.
  10. Tatiana B, Jan B, Marek K. On the effect of heat integration in the design of water utilization systems in refineries and process plants. journal of metallurgy; 2009; 6: 68-80.
  11. Costley C.S, Wallis F.M. World journal of microbiology and biotechnology; 2010; 1: 71-78.
  12. Adams A.D. PACT is it really that good, j.water and waste engineering; 2008; 11: 8-11.
  13. Park j, Jung Y, Han M, Lee S. Simultaneous removal of cadmium and turbidity in contaminated soil –washing water by DAF And electroflotaion. Water sci technol; 2009; 10: 225-235.
  14. Mahmat ch. Electrochemical technologies in wastewater treatment. Separation and Purification Technology; 2004; 38: 11–41.
  15. Castro P, Matos H, Fernandes M.C, Nunes C.P. Improvements for mass exchange networks design. Chemical Engineering; 2008; 54(11): 1649–1665.
  16. Hallale N. A new graphical targeting method for water minimization. Advances in Environmental Research; 2009; 6 (3): 377-390.
  17. Castro P, Matos H, Fernandes M.C, Nunes. C.P. Improvements for mass exchange networks design. Chemical Engineering; 2009; 54: 1649–1665.
  18. Wang Fu. wastewater minimization with flowchart constraints. Journal of Environmental Management; 2011; 21: 407-418.
  19. Lin Y, Chen J, Cheng J., Huang H, Yu C. Process alternative for methyl acetate conversion using reactive distillation. 1. Hydrolysis; Chemical Engineering; 2010; 63: 1668-1682.
  20. Jack J. Review and analysis off approaches for designing optimum industrial water networks. Chemical and Process Engineering; 2012; 29: 663-681.