Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


1 Environmental, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Malayer

2 Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Malayer


It is more expensive to remove pollution from polluted groundwater than to prevent it; hence, tools are sought that help managers prevent groundwater pollution. One such tool is the aquifer vulnerability mapping which is used to specify the most vulnerable parts of an aquifer. In order to prepare the aquifer vulnerability map of Asadabad plain which is the water resource of agricultural and industry activities as well as rural consumptive waters of the region, the DRASTIC, SINTACS and SI models were used for exploration of Asadabad plain groundwater as following steps. First, by development, the initial layers of the models were prepared. The available nitrates layer of the groundwater was also prepared based on 24 measurements of wells during spring 2013. In order to evaluate the performance of the models, the correlation between the initial layers and available nitrates layer was calculated. Based on the calculated coefficient correlation and its significance, DRASTIC and SI models were calibrated and than theirs parameters were modified. The using overlap of correlated aquifer vulnerability maps, contamination danger map of plain which called agricultural DRASTIC map was produced. At last, by comparing the vulnerability potential map, modified SI map, modified DRASTIC model, agricultural DRASTIC model and neuro fuzzy inference map with the available nitrate layer, the best model was distinguished. The result illustrated that the agricultural DRASTIC method (r=0.79) is identified as the best method to evaluate the vulnerable points of Asadabad plain. According to this map, 26.24, 56.63 and 17.13% of the area are located in the less, medium and high vulnerable points, respectively.


  1. Ahmadi, A. and Aberoumand, M. Vulnerability of Khash-Plain Aquifer, Eastern Iran, to Pollution Using Geographic nformation System (GIS). Applied geology(In Persian). 2009.
  2. Akhtari, Y. Evaluation of aquifer pollution potential model Zvyrchry and Kheran using DRASTIC, M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Geology, Shahid Chamran University, 2007. 170p
  3. Al kuisi, M., El-Naqa, A. and Hmmouri, N. Vulnerability mapping of shallow groundwater aquifer using SINTACS model in the Jordan Valley area, Jordan. Environmental Geology. 2006. 50: 651-667.
  4. Almasri,M.N. Assessment of intrinsic vulnerability to contamination for Gaza coastal aquifer , Palestin. Journal of Environmental Management, 2008. 88, 577–593.
  5. Aller, L., Bennet, T., Leher, J.H., Petty, R.J. and Hackett, G. DRASTIC: A Standardized system for evaluating groundwater pollution potential using hydro-geological settings. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Report. 1987. (EPA/600/2-87/035).
  6. Antonakos,A.K., N.J.,Lambrakis. Development and testing of three hybrid methods for the assessment of aquifer vulnerability to nitrates, based on the drastic model, an example from NE Korinthia, Greece. Journal of Hydrology. 2007. 333, 288- 304.
  7. Babiker, I.S., Mohamed, M.A.A., Hiyama, T., and Kato, K. A GIS-based DRASTIC model for assessing aquifer vulnerability in Kakamigahara Heights,Gifu Prefecture, Central Japan. Science Total Environment, 2005. 345: 127-140.
  8. Bai, L., Wang, Y. and Meng, F. Application of DRASTIC and extension theory in the groundwater. 2011.
  9. Civita, M. Le carte della vulnerabilita` degli acquiferi all’inquinamento. Teoria & practica (Aquifer vulnerability maps to pollution) (in Italian). Pitagora Ed, Bologna, 1994. 325p.
  10. Connell, L. D. & Van den Daele, G. "A quantitative approach to aquifer vulnerability mapping", Journal of Hydrology, 2003. Vol. 276(1-4): 71-88.
  11. Daly, D. and Drew, D. Irish Methodology for Karst aquifer protection. In: Beck, B.F., Pettit, A.J. and Herring, J.G. (eds.), Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology of Sinkholes and Karst, Rotterdam, Balkema. 1999. P 267-272.
  12. El–Naqa, A., Hammouri, N. & Kioso, M. "GIS–based evaluation of groundwater vulnerability in the Russeifa area", Jordan: Revista Mexicana de CienciasGeologicas, 2006. Vol. 23(3), 77–287
  13. Evans, B.M. and Myers, W.L. A GIS-based approach to evaluating regional groundwater pollution potential with DRASTIC. Soil and Water Conservation. 1990. 45: 45-242.
  14. Focazio, J.M., Reilly, E.T., Rupert, G.H. and Helset, R.D. Assessing groundwater vulnerability to contamination: providing scientifically defensible information for decision makers. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigations Report. 2002. 00-4273, 33 p.
  15. Foster, S.S. Fundamental concepts in aquifer vulnerability, pollution risk and protection strategy. In: van Duijvenbooden, W., Van Waegeningh, H.G. (Eds.), Vulnerability of Soils and Groundwater to Pollution. TNO Committee on Hydrological Research, The Hague, Proceedings and Information. 1987. 38: 69-86.
  16. Gogu, R. C., and Dassargues, A. Current trends and future challenges in groundwater vulnerability assessment using overly and index methods. Environmental Geology, 2000. Vol. 39(6), PP: 549-559.
  17. Hamedan Regional Water Co. Groundwater report of Asadabad Aquifer, Hamedan (In Persian). 2012. p. 74
  18. Hamza, M.H. Validity of the vulnerability methods DRASTIC and SI applied by GIS technique to the study of diffuse agricultural pollution in two phreatic aquifers of a semi-arid region (Northeast of Tunisia) AQUAmundi-Am01009. 2010. Pp: 57-64.
  19. Hamza, M.H., Added, A., France´s, A., and Rodrı´guez, R. Validite´ de l’application des me´thodes de vulne´rabilite´ DRASTIC, SINTACS et SI a`l’e´tude de la pollution par les nitrates dans la nappe hre´atique de Metline– Ras Jebel–Raf Raf. Comptes Rendus Geoscience. 2007. 339: 493-505.
  20. Hamza, M.H. and Added, A. Validity of DRASTIC and SI vulnerability methods. NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security, Geospatial Visual Analytics, 2009. Part 7, Pp. 395-407.
  21. Hasiniaina, F., Zhou, J. and Guoyi, L. Regional assessment of groundwater vulnerability in Tamtsag basin, Mongolia using drastic model. Journal of American Science, 2010. Vol. 6(11), PP: 65-78.
  22. Knodel, K., Lange, G., and Voigt, H.J. Environmental Geology, Handbook Field Methods and Case Studies, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2007. 1357p.
  23. McLay, C.D.A., Dragten, R., Sparling, G., and Selvarajah, N. Predicting groundwater nitrate concentrations in a region of mixed agricultural land use: a comparison of three approaches. nvironmental Pollution. 2001. 115: 191–204.
  24. Niknam, R., Mohammadi, K., and Majd, V. Groundwater Vulnerability Evaluation of Tehran-Karaj Aquifer Using DRASTIC Method and Fuzzy Logic. Iran Water Resources Research. 2007. 2:39-47 (In Persian).
  25. Rahman,A. A GIS based DRASTIC model for assessing groundwater vulnerability in shallow aquifer in Aligarh, India. Applied Geography, 2008. 28 , 32–53.
  26. Rahman, A. A GIS Based DRASTIC model for Assessing Groundwater Vulnerability in Shallow Aquifer in Aligarh, India, Applied Geography, 2008. 28: 32-53.
  27. Ribeiro, L. Desenvolvimento de um ı´ndice para avaliar a susceptibilidade, ERSHA-CVRM, 2000. 8p.
  28. Stigter, T.Y., Ribeiro, L. and Carvalho Dill, A.M.M. Evaluation of anintrinsic and a specific vulnerability assessment method in comparison with groundwater salinisation and nitrate contamination levels in two agricultural regions in the south of Portugal. Hydrogeology. 2006. 14: 79-99.
  29. Todd , P.K. Ground water , Hydrology , Kluwer Academic Publisher. 1980. 400 p.
  30. Van Stemproot, D., Evert, L., and Wassenaar, L. Aquifer vulnerability index: a GIS compatible method for groundwater vulnerability mapping. Canadian Water Resources Journal. 1994. 18: 25-37.
  31. Vrba, J. A., and Zaporozec, A. Guidebook on Mapping Groundwater Vulnerability. International Contribution for Hydrogeology. Hannover, Germany, 1994. 131 p.