Document Type : علمی - پژوهشی


1 Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Shahid Bahonar Kerman

2 Department of Economics, Faculty of Management and Economics, University of Shahid Bahonar Kerman


Although economic growth is one of the most important objectives of governments, higher economic growth is mainly associated with an increase in environmental pollution. The experience of the developed countries and some developing countries shows that with increasing economic growth, first the environmental pollution is increased and then it is reduced due to the attention to the environment at the level of production per capita which can be shown in Kuznets environmental curve. The main objective of this study is to determine the level of per capita income which causes reduced emission of the pollution due to considering the environmental issues as well as studying the impact of technology overflow index on the turning point of the curve. In this regard, using the models of the demand of capital-intermediate goods import, technology overflow index was calculated and its effect on Kuznets environmental curve theory in the period of 1966 to 2013 was reviewed. The results showed that technology overflow variable not only had a positive impact and significant impact on carbon dioxide emissions, but it also made the Kuznets Environmental Curve's turning point possible in higher per capita income.


  1. Ahadi A. Analysis on greenhouse gas emissions from different parts of the country. Department of Environment. Iran's Climate Change Office; 2003. [In Persian]
  2. Asghari M, Salarnazar rafsanjanipour S.The effects of FDI on environmental quality. Economic Development Reserch; 2013; (9):1- 30. [In Persian]
  3. Ben Jebli M, Ben Jebli S, Ozturk I. Testing environmrntal Kuznets Curve hypothesis The role of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and trade in OECD countries. Ecological Indicators; 2016; (60):824-831
  4. Birdsall N, Wheeler D. Trade policy and industrial pollution in Latin America: where are the pollution havens?, Journal of Environment & Development; 2004;(1):137-147.
  5. Dadgar Y, Nazari R. The analysis of the import demand in Iran. Quantitative Economics; 2010; 7(1):1-22. [In Persian]
  6. He J, Richard P. Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 in Canada. Ecological Economics; 2010; (69):1083-1093.
  7. Hoseininasab S.A, Paykari S. The effect of trade liberalization on economic growth and environmental pollution. Economic Journal; 2012; (9): 61-82. [In Persian]
  8. Iwata H, Okada K, Samreth S. Empirical study on the Environmental Kuznets Curve for co2 in France: The Role of Nuclear Energy. Munich Personal RePEc Archive; 2009; 1-16.
  9. Khamseh A, Azadi A. The evaluation of the success of technology transfer. 4th National Conference on Management of Technology. Iranian association for management of technology; 2010; (4):1-15. [In Persian]
  10. Kuznets P, Simon P. Economic growth and income inequality. American Economic Review; 1995; (7): 45-55.
  11. Lindmark M. An EKC-pattern in historical perspective: carbon dioxide emissions, technology, fuel prices and growth in Sweden. Ecological Economics; 2002; (42): 333-347.
  12. Mozafari M.M, Nazari Asli M, Identify and prioritize the transfer of technology (TOPSIS techniques). Quantitative researches in management; 2011;2(4): 60-69. [In Persian]
  13. Pajuian J, Moradhasel N. The effect of air pollution on economic growth. Iranian Journal of Economic Research; 2007; (4):141-160. [In Persian]
  14. Qing Kang Y, Zhao T, Yun Yang Y. Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions in China: A spatial panel data approach. Ecological Indicators; 2016; (69):231-239
  15. Sameti M, Jalaei S.M, Sadeghi Z, The effects of globalization on the model of Iran's Import Demand. The Economic Reserch; 2004; (11, 12):1-16. [In Persian]
  16. Song T, Zhen T, Tong L. An Empirical Test of Environmental Kuznets Curve in China: A Panel Cointegration Approach. China Economic Review; 2008; (19):381-392.