Seasonal Variation of Heavy Metal (Pb) in Fish (Liza aurata), Sediment and Water Samples from the Gomishan Wetland

Document Type : مقاله کوتاه


1 Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Azadshar branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran

2 Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Azadshar branch, Islamic Azad University, Azadshahr, Iran


The pollution of aquatic ecosystems with heavy metals has always been a major concern for the aquatic organisms and human health. Measuring the levels of contaminants such as heavy metal (Pb) accumulated along the food chain (fish) and then transmitted to the human body is of particular interest. Concentrations of heavy metal (Pb) were measured in the water, sediment and fish species (Liza aurata) from the Gomishan Wetland, Iran. Samples of water, sediment and fish were collected during two periods: summer (2013) and winter (2014). The result revealed thatPb concentration was varied significantly among sediment, water and fish body, the average Pb concentrations in sediment, water and fish in both seasons was in the order sediment > fish >water, Pb concentration was varied significantly among gills, liver and muscle tissues of fish samples in any station and in both seasons was in the order gill > muscle >liver. These values were lower than the established standard for aquatic environment by W.H.O and F.A.O. The results indicated that the consumer of fish and water from the stream is not at risk of being poison by this metal.


  1. Leatherland J F, Woo P T K. Fish disease and disorder. Non-infectious Disorder. CAB International publishing, New York; 1998. p. 412.
  2. Clark R B . Marine Pollution. Oxford University press; 2001. p. 380.
  3. Giffords S, Dunstan R H. Connor W O, Roberts T, Tioa R. Pearl Aquaculture. Profitable. Environmental. The Science of the Total Environmental; 2004; 319:505-518.
  4. Ikem A, Egibor N O. Assessment of trace elements in canned fishes (mackerel, tuna, salmon, sardines and herrings) in Georgia and Alabama (United States of America). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis; 2005; 18:771–787.
  5. Elsagh A, Mollaie M, Messbah A. Cadmium pollution study on the surface in the Bandar Abbas shore line, The 4th National conference of Geology and Environment, Islamic Azad University, Eslamshahr Branch; 2009. p.121.
  6. Shahe A Q, Kazi T G, Arain M B, Baig J A, Afridi H I, Kandhro G A, Khan S. Hazardous impact of arsenic on tissues of fish species of the Manchar Lake and Indus River, Pakistan. Journal of Hazard Mater; 2009; 167:511– 515.
  7. Canli M, Furness R W. Toxicity of heavy metals dissolved in sea water and influences of sex and size on metal accumulation and tissue distribution in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus. Marine Environmental Research; 1995; 36:217–236.
  8. Tuzen M, Soylak M. Determination of trace metals in canned fish marketed in Turkey. Food Chemistry; 2007; 10:1378–1382.
  9. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Nature and extent of childhood lead poisoning in the United States: A Report to Congress. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Atlanta, GA. 2005. p. 417.
  10. Sepe A, Ciaralli L, Ciprotti M, Giordano R, Fumari E, Costantini S. Determination of cadmium, chromium, lead and vanadium in sixfish species from the Adriatic Sea. Journal of Food Additive Contamination; 2003;20: 543–552.
  11. Jarup L. Hazards of heavy metal contamination. Journal of British Medical Bulletin; 2003; 68:167–182.
  12. Kakkar P, Jaffery N F. Biological markers for metal toxicity. ETAP; 2005; 19:335–349.
  13. Kiabi B H, Ghaemi R A, Abdoli A. Wetland and riverine ecosystems of Golestan Province. Department of the Environment, Golestan Province, Office of DOE; 1999 p. 182. [In Persian]
  14. Chouba L, Kraiem M, Njimi W, Tissaoui CH, Thompson J R, Flower R J. Seasonal variation of heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Hg) in sediments and in mullet, Mugil cephalus (Mugilidae), from the Ghar El Melh Lagoon (Tunisia). Transit Waters Bulletin; 2007; 4:45–52.
  15. Bandani G A, Khoshbavar Rostami H A, Yelghi S, Shokrzadeh M, Nazari H. Concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Zn, and Pb) in muscle and liver tissues of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) from coastal waters of Golestan Province. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal; 2011; 19(4):1-10. [In Persian]
  16. Monroy M, Maceda A, De Sostoa A. Metal concentration in water, sediment and four ï‌sh speciesfrom Lake Titicaca reveals a large-scale environmental concern. Science of the Total Environment; 2014; 487:233–244.
  17. Aquatic Resources Research Centre for Inland Waters Gorgan. Assessment of the level of heavy metals in sediment, water and fish filled the southern coast of the Caspian Sea in Golestan Province. Final Report Project; 2008. p.115. [In Persian]
  18. Yi Y, Yang Z, Zhang S H. Ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in sediment and human health risk assessment of heavy metals in fishes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. Environmental Pollution; 2001; 159:2575–2585.
  19. Karbassi A, Ayaz G, Nouri J. Flocculation of trace metals during mixing of Talar river water with Caspian Seawater. International Journal of Environmental Research; 2007;1(1):66-73.
  20. Sadough Niri A, Ronagh Mand M, Ahmadi R. Quantitative analysis of heavy metals in muscle, liver and gill tissues of Euryglossa orientalis in northern Persian Gulf waters. Iranian Scientific Fisheries Journal; 2012; 21(1):147-160. [In Persian]
  21. Askary Sary A. The study of heavy metals (Pb, Hg, Cd)in (Barhus grypus) and (Liza abu) in Karoon and Karkheh rivers. Scientific and Research Journal of Marine Biology; 2010; 1(4):95-107.