Document Type : مقاله کوتاه
Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Torbat-e-Heydarieh, Iran
Efficient management of inputs used in agricultural production plays a key role in the process of sustainable development. In this regard, present research aims to determine the economic optimal use of water and environment-polluting inputs for wheat production in Seydan-Farough Plain, Marvdasht Township. Required data is cross-sectional and related to the crop year 2010-2011 collected through questionnaires using two-stage cluster sampling method. The research findings show that farmers have used water and the polluting input of urea fertilizer more than economic optimal amount. The main reason for water overuse should be attributed to the dominant irrigation method in the region. It is therefore recommended to use modern irrigation systems with higher performance than mere relying on price instruments of water management which have largely been inefficient based on experience in this area. In the case of urea fertilizer, targeted subsidies plan for inputs has had beneficial effects in order to optimize the use of input, however, following the conventional system of input consumption by the farmers and prevalence of incorrect consumption pattern are still causing overuse of this environment-polluting input. Accordingly, it is suggested to continue the trend of getting real input prices considering a reasonable profit margin for farmers, pursue extension efforts such as preparing fertilizer plans or other strategies, and replace organic fertilizers in order to reduce the consumption of environment-polluting inputs. Moreover, phosphate fertilizer and poison inputs are used in optimal level.
- Falcon W P. The green revolution: Generation of problems. American Journal of Agricultural Economics; 1970; 52(5): 711-712.
- Alene A D, Manyong V M, Gockowski J. The production efficiency of intercropping annual and perennial crops in southern Ethiopia: A comparison of distance functions and production frontiers. Agricultural Systems; 2006; 91(1-2): 51-70.
- Shao Y, Fan X, Liu H, Xiao J, Ross S, Brisco B, Brown R, Staples G. Rice monitoring and production estimation using multitemporal RADARSAT. Remote Sensing of Environment; 2001; 76: 310-325.
- Mermut A R, Eswaran H. Some major developments in soil science since the mid-1960s. Geoderma; 2001; 100: 403-426.
- Li L L, Huang G B, Zhang R Z, Bellotti B, Li G, Chan K Y. Benefits of conservation agriculture on soil and water conservation and its progress in China. Agricultural Sciences in China; 2011; 10(6): 850-859.
- Nolan S, Unkovich M, Shen Y Y, Li L L, Bellotti W. Farming systems of the Loess Plateau, Gansu Province, China. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment; 2008; 124: 13-23.
- Costanza R, Daly H E. Natural capital and sustainable development. Conservation Biology; 1992; 6: 37-46.
- Stirling A. The appraisal of sustainability: some problems and possible responses. Local Environment; 1999; 4(2): 111-135.
- Huang W, LeBlanc M. Market-based incentives for addressing non-point water quality problems: a residual nitrogen tax approach. Review of Agricultural Economics; 1994; 16: 427-440.
- Yadav S N, Peterson W, Easter K W. Do farmers overuse nitrogen fertilizer to the detriment of the environment?. Environmental and resource economics; 1997; 9: 323-340.
- Abrahams N A, Shortle J S. The performance of compliance measures and instruments for nitrate nonpoint pollution under uncertainty and alternative agricultural commodity policy regimes. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review; 2004; 33: 79-90.
- Burkart C S. Micro-level econometric and water-quality modeling: simulation of nutrient management policy effects. Ph.D.: dissertation in economics, the Graduate Faculty, University of Iowa State University; 2006.
- Iyyapazham S. Managing water resources in agriculture and watersheds: modeling using GIS and dynamic simulation. Ph.D.: dissertation in natural resources conservation, the University of Massachusetts Amherst; 2007.
- Naramngam S. Modeling the impacts of agricultural management practices on water quality in the little Miami River Basin. Ph.D.:dissertation in Geography, the College of Arts and Sciences, University of Cincinnati; 2008.
- Kang C. Evaluation of economic and water quality effects for variable rate application of nitrogen fertilizer. Ph.D.: dissertation in agricultural economics, the Faculty of the Graduate School, University of Missouri-Columbia; 1996.
- Moxey A, White B. Efficient compliance with agricultural nitrate pollution standards. J. Agr. Econ; 1994; 45(1): 27-37.
- Burt T P. Integrated management of sensitive catchment systems. Catena; 2001; 42: 275-290.
- Darst B C, Murphy L S. Keeping agriculture viable: industry's viewpoint. J. Soil and water cons; 1994; 49(2): 8-14.
- Ensink J H J, Van der Hoek W, Matsuno Y, Munir S, Aslam M R. Use of environmental impact of environmental compensation payment policy under uniform and variable-rate nitrogen management. Agricultural Systems; 2002; 91: 135â153.
- Donoso G, Cancino J, Magri A. Effects of agricultural activities on water pollution with nitrates and pesticides in the central valley of Chile. Water Sci. Technol; 1999; 39(3): 49-60.
- Zalidis G, Stamatiadis S, Takavakoglou V, Eskridge K, Misopolinos N. Impacts of agricultural practices on soil and water quality in the Mediterranean region and proposed assessment methodology. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ; 2002; 88(2): 137â146.
- Thorburn P J, Biggs J S, Weier K L, Keating B A. Nitrate in groundwater of intensive agricultural areas in coastal Northeastern Australia. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ; 2003; 94(1): 49-58.
- Chen J, Tang C, Sakura Y, Yu J, Fukushima Y. Nitrate pollution from agriculture in different hydrogeological zones of the regional groundwater flow system in the North China Plain. Hydrogeology Journal; 2005; 13: 481-492.
- Jalali M. Nitrates leaching from agricultural land in Hamadan, western Iran. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ; 2005; 110: 210â218.
- Oenema O, Liere L V, Schoumans O. Effects of lowering nitrogen and of Agricultural Systems at the Farm Level, Methods for Assessing Soil Quality. SSSA, Special Publication; 2005; 49: 401â409.
- Rajmohan N, Elango L. Nutrient chemistry of groundwater in an intensively irrigated region of southern India. Environ. Geol; 2005; 47: 820â830.
- Wolf J, RÃ¶tter R, Oenema O. Nutrient emission models in environmental policy evaluation at different scales-experience from the Netherlands. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment; 2005; 105: 291-306.
- Humenik J J, Smolen M D, Dressing S A. Pollution from non point sources: where we are and where we should go. Environ. Sci. Technol; 1987; 21(8): 737-742.
- Duda A M. Addressing non-point sources of water pollution must become an international priority. Water Sci. Technol; 1993; 28 (3â5): 1â11.
- Zachariah O. Optimal economic management of groundwater quantity and quality: an integrated approach. Ph.D.: dissertation in agricultural economics and business, the Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Guelph; 1999.
- Nelson M A. Optimal management of a groundwater resource with allowance for backstop technologies. Ph.D.: dissertation in economics, Washington State University; 2005.
- Wada C A. Optimal and sustainable groundwater managemnent: multiple aquifers, watershed conservation, and water recycling. Ph.D.: dissertation in economics, University of Hawaiâi; 2010.
- Pongkijvorasin S. Stock-to-stock externalities resources in renewable resource economics: watersheds, conjunctive water use, and mud. Ph.D.: dissertation in economics, University of Hawaiâi; 2007.
- Heady E O, Dillon J L. Agricultural production functions. Ludhiana, India: Kalyani publishers; 1988.
- Sankhayan P L. Introduction to the economics of agricultural production. New Delhi: Prentic Hall of India; 1988.
- Dhawan K C, Bansal P K. Rationality of the use of various factors of production on different sizes of farm in the Panjab, India. Journal of Agricultural Economics; 1977; 32(3): 121-130.
- Antel J M, Aitah A S. Rice technology, farmer rationality, and agricultural policy in Egypt. American Journal of Agricultural Economics; 1993; 65(4): 667-674.
- Ozsabuncuoglu I H. Production function for wheat: a case study of Southeastern Anatolian Project (SAP) region. Agricultural Economics; 1998; 18: 75-87.
- Hasanpour B, Soltani G R. The study of phosphate fertilizer consumption in the irrigated wheat farms of Fars Province. Agricultural Economics and Development; 1998; 6(23): 209-230. [In Persian]
- Hozhabr Kiani K. Investigating and determining the optimal economic use of inputs for cultivating irrigated wheat. Agricultural Economics and Development; 1999; 7(26): 7-40. [In Persian]
- Dezhpasand F. Investigating the effect of change in fertilizer subsidy on sugar beet production. Ms. C.: Thesis, Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University; 1991. [In Persian]
- Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance. Investigating the effects of fertilizer subsidy on the production of major agricultural crops; 1992. [In Persian]
- Kohansal M R. Investigating the economic effects of the Removal of fertilizer subsidy in Fars Province. Ms. C.: Thesis, Shiraz University; 1993. [In Persian]
- Amini A R. Determining the optimal use of fertilizer for cultivating irrigated wheat in each of the countryâs provinces. Ms. C.: Thesis, Faculty of Economics and Political Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University; 1994. [In Persian]
- Hosseini Jabali S S. Determining the optimal use of Seed for cultivating irrigated wheat in Fars Province (1991-92). Agricultural Economics and Development; 1995; 3(12): 133-144. [In Persian]
- Hozhabr Kiani K, Saffaripour Esfahani M. Investigating the consumption of fertilizer for cultivating rainfed wheat in Isfahan Province. Agricultural Economics and Development; 1996; 4(14): 60-76. [In Persian]
- Fars Regional Water Organization. Unpublished report, Shiraz; 2006. [In Persian]
- Fallahi E, Chizari A H. The Application of breakeven analysis in the agricultural management of Marvdasht's mrrigated wheat farms. Journal of Agriculture; 2008; 10(1): 111-122. [In Persian]
- Seydan Agricultural Services Center; 2012. [In Persian]
- Intriligator M D, Bodkin R G, Hsiao C. Econometric models, techniques, and applications, second edition. USA: Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall; 1996.
- Fan S. Research investment and the economic returns to Chinese agricultural research. Journal of Productivity Analysis; 2000; 14: 163â182.
- Kaneda H. Specification of production functions for analyzing technical change and factor inputs in agricultural development. Journal of Development Economics; 1982; 11: 97-108.
- Barelli P, Pessoa S D A. Inada conditions imply that production function must be asymptotically CobbâDouglas. Economics Letters; 2003; 81: 361-363.
- Cobb C W, Douglas P H. A theory of production. American Economic Review; 1928; 1: 139-165.
- Douglas P H. Are there laws of production?. American Economic Review; 1948; 38: 1-41.
- Walters A A. Production and cost functions: An econometric survey. Econometrica; 1963; 31: 1-66.
- Nerlove M. Estimation and identification of Cobb-Douglas production functions. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Company; 1965.
- Samuelson P A. Paul Douglas measurement of production functions and marginal productivities. Journal of Political Economy; 1979; 87: 923-939.
- Scheaffer R L, Mendenhall W, Ott L. Elementary survey sampling. U. S. A: Duxbury Press; 1996.