Removal of Chromium (VI) from Polluted Water using Barberry Leaf as a Cheap Absorbent

Document Type : Original Articles


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Birjand, Birjand

2 MSc. Student of Environmental Pollution, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Birjand, Birjand

3 PhD.Student of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Birjand, Birjand


It is now well recognized that heavy metals in the environment cause pollution that can be harmful to living organisms. Without control, heavy metals that are transferred to the environment may undergo significant changes and have a serious impact on aquatic environments, public health and economics. In view of the serious detrimental effect to the environment and health of wastewater containing Cr (VI), there is an urgent need for regulation. The objective of the present study was to investigate Cr (VI) removal from aqueous solutions using barberry leaves. The effects of parameters such as acidity, contact time, sorbent dose and initial concentration were evaluated for batch mode. Results showed maximum adsorption in an acidic medium at pH level 2; initial Cr(VI) concentration of 80 mg L−1 and temperature of 25◦C with a contact time of 10 min at 200 rpm stirring speed. Test results were analysed by adsorption isotherms and kinetics modelling and the best adaptation was made by the Langmuir isotherm and the second best by the para-stage synthetic model.


  1. Altin O, Ozbelge H.O and Dogu T. Use of general purpose adsorption isotherms for heavy metal-clay mineral interactions. 1998 Colloid and Interface Science, 198(4):130-140.
  2. Aziz A, Elandaloussi E.H, Belhalfaoui B, Ouali M.S, Charles De Menorval L. Efficiency of succinylated-olive stone biosorbent on the removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces; 2009; 73: 192–198.
  3. Cardoso VdA., Souza Agd, Sartoratto PPC, Nunes LM. The ionic exchange process of cobalt, nickel and copper(II) in alkaline and acid-layered titanates. Colloid surface. A: Physicochemical Engineering Aspects; 2004; 248: 145-149.
  4. Dakiky M, Khami A, Manassra A and Mer’eb M. Selective adsorption of chromium (VI) in industrial wastewater using low cost abundantly available adsorbents. Advances in Environmental Research; 2002; 4: 533–540.
  5. Eaton AD, Clesceri LS, Greenberg AE. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American public health association. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Washington, DC; 1995; 225- 257.
  6. Esposito A, Pagnanelli F, Lodi A, Solisio C, Veglio F. Biosorption of heavy metals by Sphaerotilus natans: an equilibrium study at different pH and biomass concentrations. Hydrometallurgy; 2001; 60: 129–141.
  7. Garg U. K, Kaur M.P, Garg V.K, Suda D. Removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution by agricultural waste biomass. Journal of Hazardous Materials; 2007; 140: 60–68.
  8. Garg V.K, Gupta R, Kumar R, Gupta R.K. Adsorption of chromium from aqueous solution on treated sawdust, Bioresour. Technol; 2004; 92: 79–81.
  9. Gupta S, and Babu B.V. Utilization of waste product (tamarind seeds) for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions: Equilibrium, kinetics, and regeneration studies. Journal of Environmental Management 90; 2009; 3013–3022.
  10. Hamdi Karaoğlu M, ule Zor S, Uğurlu M. Biosorption of Cr(III) from solutions using vineyard pruning waste. Chemical Engineering Journal; (2010); 159: 98–106.
  11. Hasan S.H, Singh K.K, Prakash O, Talat M, Ho Y.S. Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using agricultural waste ‘maize bran’. Journal of Hazardous Materials; 2008; 152 : 356–365.
  12. Hu Z, Lei L, Li Y, and Ni Y. Chromium adsorption on high performance activated carbon from aqueous solution. Separation and Purification Technology; 2003; 1: 13–18.
  13. Jain M, Garg V.K, Kadirvelu K. Chromium(VI) removal from aqueous system using Helianthus annuus (sunflower) stem waste. Journal of Hazardous Materials; 2009 ;162: 365–372.
  14. Johnson, B. Effect of pH, Temperature and concentration on the adsorption of
  15. cadmium on goethite. Environmental Science Technology;1990; 24(3):112-118.
  16. Kapoor A, Viraraghavan T, Cullimore D.R. Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger, Bioresource Technoogy,; 1999; 70: 95–104.
  17. Lee T, Lim H, Lee Y, Park J.W. Use of waste iron metal for removal of Cr(VI) from water. Chemosphere; 2003; 53:479-485.
  18. Malkoc E, Nuhoglu Y. Potential of tea factory waste for chromium(VI) removal from aqueous solutions: Thermodynamic and kinetic studies. Separation and Purification Technology; 2007; 54: 291–298.
  19. Mehrasbi M, Farahmandkia Z. Heavy metal’s omission from water environment by surface absorption on reformed banana peel. Environment and Health Journal, 2008; 1: 57-66. [In Persian]
  20. Mohanty K, Mousam J, Meikap B.C, Biswas M.N. Biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions by Eichhornia crassipes. Chemical Engineering Journal, 2006, 117: 71–77.
  21. Mohanty K, Jha M, Meikap B.C, Biswas M.N. Removal ofchromium (VI) from dilute aqueous solutions by activated carbon developed from Terminalia arjuna nuts activated with zinc chloride. Chemical Engineering Science, 2005; 60: 3049 – 3059.
  22. Nickazar M, Noorbakhsh N. Heavy metal’s omission such as ( Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(II)) from water solutions by activated carbon of agricultural waste. Environment Technology and Sciences, 2006; 28:35-43. [In Persian]
  23. Parham H, Zargar B, Shiralipour R. Fast and efficient removal of mercury from water samples using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles modified with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2012; 205-206:94-100.
  24. Samarghandi M, Azizian S, Shirzad sibni M. Cr(VI) removal from water environments by using modified Holly tree’s sawdust: Synthetic and balance study. Hamedan Hygienic Service and Medical University’s Science Journal; 2009;4:61-67. [In Persian]
  25. Santhana Krishna Kumar A, Kalidhasan S, Rajesh V, Rajesh N. Application of Cellulose- Clay Composite Biosorbent toward the Effective Adsorption and Removal of Chromium from Industrial Wastewater. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2012;51:58–69.
  26. Sarkar B, Xi Y, Megharaj M, S.R.Krishnamurti G, Rajarathnam D, Naidu R.
  27. Remediation of hexavalent chromium through adsorption by bentonite based Arquad® 2HT-75 organoclays. Hazardous Materials, 2010; 183:87-97.
  28. Selvaraj K, Manonmani S, and Pattabhi S. Removal of hexavalent chromium using distillery sludge. Bioresource Technology, 2003; 2: 207–211.
  29. Song Wong, X., Li,Z.Z., Tao Sh. R. Removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solution using walnut hull. Environmental Management, 2009; 90(2):721-729.
  30. Ucun H, Bayhan Y.K, Kaya Y, Cakici A, and Algur O.F. Biosorption of chromium(VI) from aqueous solution by cone biomass of Pinus sylvestris. Bioresource Technology, 2002; 2: 155–158.
  31. Weirich DB, Hari R, Xue H, Behra P, Sigg L. Adsorption of Cu, Cd, and Ni on Goethite in the presence of natural groundwater ligands. Environmental Technology, 2002; 36:328-336.
  32. Yuan P, Liu D, Fan M, Yang D, Zhu R, Ge F, Zhu J.X, He H. Removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions by the diatomite-supported/unsupported magnetite nanoparticles. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2010; 173:614-621.
  33. Zhou D, Zhang L, Zhou J, Guo S. Cellulose/chitin beads for adsorption of heavy metals in aqueous solution. Water Research, 2004;38:2643-2650.