Effects of Different Nutrition Systems (Organic, Chemical, Biological and Integrated) and Fungi Piriformospora indica on Yield and Concentration of Elements in Shoot and Grainof Fennel (Foeniculum valgare mill)

Document Type : Original Articles


1 Ph.D Student, Department of Agronomy, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modarres University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Full Professor of, Medicinal plants Research Division, Research institute of Forests and Rangelands, Tehran, Iran.

4 Full Professor of, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.


The aims of our study were to compare the effectiveness of different nutrition systems and fungi Piriformospora indica on yield and the concentration of elements in shoot and grain of fennel (Foeniculum Valgare Mill). A field study was conducted in 2009 in the Tehran region and the type of design was a randomized complete block with a factorial arrangement and three replications. Five levels of manure (without organic manure, 100% cattle manure, 100% spent mushroom compost and 50% cattle manure with 50% spent mushroom compost and 100% N) along with two levels of inoculation and not-inoculation of the plant with Piriformospora indica. Results showed that different nutrition systems impacted significantly on yield, dry matter, harvest index and nitrogen concentration of plant and grain. The result also showed that fungi significantly affected all of the measured traits except for the potassium concentration of plant and grain. Also, the interaction effects of fungi ¥nutrition systems was not significant in all measured traits except the harvest index. The result showed that the highest (1559 kg/ha) and the least (632 kg/ha) grain yield was produced in chemical systems Piriformospora indica and fertilization systems respectively