Assessment of the Relationship Between Environmental Pollution, Economic Growth and Agricultural Production in Iran

Document Type : Original Article


Department of Agricultural Economics, Faculty of Agriculture., Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Introduction: Improving living standards in developing countries and rapid population growth
have significant effects on the economy and environment. Population growth leads to an
increase in demand for agricultural products, which increases environmental pollution, reduces
the productivity of natural resources, and has a negative effect on economic growth. Therefore,
the aim of this research is to investigate the short-term and long-term relationship between
agricultural production, economic growth, and environmental pollution in Iran.
Material and Methods: In this research, time series data for the period of 1991-2020 were
collected from the database of the World Bank and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),
and the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) models were used. First, the augmented
Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron tests were performed to test the stationarity. Then,
according to the values of Akaike, Schwarz, and Bayesian information criterion, the optimal
number of lags was selected. ARDL bounds test was used to test the presence of the long-run
relationship between the variables, and then short and long-run relationships and error
correction models (ECM) were estimated. Finally, the causality between pairwise variables was
investigated by using the Granger causality test.
Results and Discussion: The results of short-term relationships show that a one percent
increase in economic growth, rural population, gross capital formation, and agricultural
production increases CO2 emissions by 0.307%, decreases by 2.937%, and increases by
0.087%, and 0.065%, respectively. The effect of foreign direct investment on CO2 emissions in
the short term was not significant. However, a one percent increase in the lag of foreign direct
investment will increase CO2 emissions by 0.01%. The long-term results show that a one
percent increase in economic growth, rural population, agricultural products, foreign direct
investment, and gross capital formation will increase CO2 emissions by 0.662%, decrease by
3.807%, and increase by 0.141%, by 0.024% and 0.188%, respectively. The results of the
Granger causality test show the bidirectional causality relationship between economic growth,
agricultural production, foreign direct investment, and CO2 emissions, as well as foreign direct
investment and agricultural production. Also, there is causality in only one direction between
gross capital formation and CO2 emissions, agricultural production and economic growth,
foreign direct investment and economic growth, agricultural production and rural population,
rural population and foreign direct investment, and rural population and CO2 emissions. In
addition, there is a long-term positive and significant relationship between CO2 emissions and
economic growth, gross capital formation, agricultural production, and foreign direct
investment. The long-run result demonstrated by the FMOLS and DOLS methods was the same
as the finding of the ARDL approach.
Conclusion: In Iran, enhancing agricultural mechanization, promoting renewable energy,
enforcing environmental regulations, adopting green technologies, investing in R&D, and
attracting foreign investments are crucial to reduce CO2 emissions and pollution. Fossil fueldependent
industries, capital formation, and rural populations also impact environmental
pollution, emphasizing the need for employment opportunities in rural areas to mitigate these


Addai, K., Serener, B. and Kirikkaleli, D., 2022. Empirical analysis of the relationship among urbanization, economic growth and ecological footprint: evidence from Eastern Europe. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29, 27749–27760.
Adebayo, T. S., Akinsola, G. D., Odugbesan, J. A. and Olanrewaju, V.O., 2021. Determinants of environmental degradation in Thailand: Empirical evidence from ARDL and wavelet coherence approaches. Pollution, 7(1), 181-196. doi: 10.22059/poll.2020.309083.885
Adedoyin, F.F., Bein, M.A., Gyamf, B.A. and Bekun, F.V., 2021. Does agricultural development induce environmental pollution in E7? A myth or reality. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(31), 41869-41880.
Agboola, M.O. and Bekun, F.V., 2019. Does agricultural value added induce environmental degradation? Empirical evidence from an agrarian country. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 26, 27660-27676.
Agboola, M.O., Bekun, F.V., Osundina, O.A. and Kirikkaleli, D., 2022. Revisiting the economic growth and agriculture nexus in Nigeria: Evidence from asymmetric cointegration and frequency domain causality approaches. Journal of Public Affairs, 22(1).
Ahmed, M. M. and Shimada, K., 2019. The effect of renewable energy consumption on sustainable economic development: Evidence from emerging and developing economies. Energies, 12(15), 2954.
Ahmed, Z., Cary, M. and Le, H. P., 2021. Accounting asymmetries in the long-run nexus between globalization and environmental sustainability in the United States: An Aggregated and Disaggregated Investigation. Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 86, 106511.
Alam, J. 2015. Impact of agriculture, industry and service sector's value added in the GDP on CO2 emissions of selected South Asian countries. World Review of Business Research, 5(2), 39-59.
Alam, M.M., Murad, M.W., Noman, A.H. M. and Ozturk, I., 2016. Relationships among carbon emissions, economic growth, energy consumption and population growth: testing Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis for Brazil, China, India and Indonesia. Ecological Indicators, 70, 466-479.
Alharthi, M., Dogan, E. and Taskin, D., 2021. Analysis of CO2 emissions and energy consumption by sources in MENA countries: evidence from quantile regressions. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 38901-38908.
Ali, E.B. and Anufriev, V.P., 2020. The causal relationship between agricultural production, economic growth, and energy consumption in Ghana. R-Economy, 6(4), 231-241.
Ali, E.B., Awuni, J. A. and Danso-Abbeam, G., 2018. Determinants of fertilizer adoption among smallholder cocoa farmers in the Western Region of Ghana. Cogent Food and Agriculture, 4(1), 1538589.
Ali, E.B., Gyamfi, B.A., Bekun, F.V., Ozturk, I and. Nketiah, P., 2023. An empirical assessment of the tripartite nexus between environmental pollution, economic growth, and agricultural production in Sub-Saharan African countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 30, 71007-71024.
Ali, S., Ying, L., Anjum, R., Nazir, A., Shalmani, A., Shah, T. and Shah, F., 2021. Analysis on the nexus of CO2 emissions, energy use, net domestic credit, and GDP in Pakistan: an ARDL bound testing analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 4594-4614.
Ali, S., Ying, L., Shah, T., Tariq, A., Chandio, A. A. and Ali, I., 2019. Growth, land under cereal crops and agriculture. Ernergies, 12(4590), 1-18.
Aslam, B., Hu, J., Shahab, S., Ahmad, A., Saleem, M., Shah, S. S. A., Javed, M. S., Aslam, M. K., Hussain, S., and Hassan, M., 2021. The nexus of industrialization, GDP per capita and CO2 emission in China. Environmental Technology and Innovation, 23, 101674.
Baydoun, H. and Aga, M., 2021. The effect of energy consumption and economic growth on environmental sustainability in the GCC countries: Does financial development matter? Energies, 14, 5897.
Bekhet, H.A., Matar, A. and Yasmin, T., 2017. CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, and financial development in GCC countries: Dynamic simultaneous equation models. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 70, 117-132.
Bekun, F.V., Alola, A.A., Gyamfi, B.A. and Ampomah, A.B., 2021. The environmental aspects of conventional and clean energy policy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Is N-shaped hypothesis valid? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(47), 66695-66708.
Bhujabal, P., Sethi, N. and Padhan, P.C., 2021. ICT, foreign direct investment and environmental pollution in major Asia Pacific countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(31), 42649-42669.
Boamah, K. B., Du, J., Boamah, A. J. and Appiah, K., 2018. A Study on the Causal Effect of Urban Population Growth and International Trade on Environmental Pollution: Evidence from China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 5862-5874.
Bouznit, M., and Pablo-Romero, M., 2016. CO2 emissions and economic growth in Algeria. Journal of Energy Policy, 96, 93-104. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2016.05.036.
Brown, R. L., Durbin, J., and Evans, J. M. (1975). Techniques for testing the constancy of regression relationships over time. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B (Methodological), 37(2), 149-192. doi: 10.1111/j.2517-6161. 1975.tb01532.
Chandio, A.A., Akram, W., Bashir, U., Ahmad, F., Adeel, S. and Jiang, Y., 2022. Sustainable maize production and climatic change in Nepal: Robust role of climatic and non-climatic factors in the long-run and short-run. Environmental Development and Sustainability.
Dagar, V., Khan, M.K., Alvarado, R., Rehman, A., Irfan, M., Adekoya, O. B., and Fahad, S., 2022. Impact of renewable energy consumption, financial development and natural resources on environmental degradation in OECD countries with dynamic panel data. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(12), 18202-18212.
Dagmawe, T. (2021). Getting into the details: structural effects of economic growth on environmental pollution in Ethiopia. Heliyon, 7(7), e07688.
Dogan, E., Sebri, M. and Turkekul, B., 2016. Exploring the relationship between agricultural electricity consumption and output: new evidence from Turkish regional data. Energy Policy, 95, 370-377.
Dogan, N., 2016. Agriculture and environmental Kuznets curves in the case of Turkey: evidence from the ARDL and bounds test. Agricultural Economics - Czech, 62(12), 566-574.­.
Dogan, N. and Karay, M., 2019. The impact of renewable energy consumption and energy intensity on CO2 emissions from fuel combustions for the case of Turkey: a cointegration analyses. BİLTÜRK Journal of Economics and Related Studies, 1, 169-187.
Edoja, P.E., Aye, G.C., and Abu, O., 2016. Dynamic relationship among coemission, agricultural productivity and food security in Nigeria. Cogent Economics and Finance, 4(1), 1204809.
Etokakpan, M.U., Adedoyin, F.F., Vedat, Y., Bekun, F.V. and Sarkodie, S.A. 2020a. Does globalization in Turkey induce increased energy consumption: Insights into its environmental pros and cons. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 26125–26140.
Etokakpan, M.U., Solarin, S.A., Yorucu, V., Bekun, F.V. and Sarkodie, S.A., 2020b. Modeling natural gas consumption, capital formation, globalization, CO2 emissions and economic growth nexus in Malaysia: Fresh evidence from combined cointegration and causality analysis. Energy Strategy Reviews, 31, 100526.
Fakher, H.A., Panahi, M., Emami, K., Peykarjou, K. and Zeraatkish, S.Y., 2021. New insight into examining the role of financial development in economic growth effect on a composite environmental quality index. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(43), 61096-61114.
FAO, 2021. The future of food and agriculture: Alternative pathways to 2050. Retrieved from
Ganda, F., 2021. The non-linear influence of trade, foreign direct investment, financial development, energy supply and human capital on carbon emissions in the BRICS. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(41), 57825-57841.
Ge, M., Kannaiah, D., Li, J., Khan, N., Shabbir, M.S., Bilal, K., and Tabash, M. I., 2022. Does foreign private investment affect the clean industrial environment? Nexus among foreign private investment, CO2 emissions, energy consumption, trade openness, and sustainable economic growth. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(18), 26182-26189.
Ghimire, A., Lin, F. and Zhuang, P., 2021. The impacts of agricultural trade on economic growth and environmental pollution: Evidence from Bangladesh using ARDL in the presence of structural breaks. Sustainability, 13(15), 8336. doi:10.3390/su13158336.
Godil, D. I., Ahmad, P., Ashraf, M.S., Sarwat, S., Sharif, A., Shabib-ul-Hasan, S. and Jermsittiparsert, K., 2021. The step towards environmental mitigation in Pakistan: Do transportation services, urbanization, and financial development matter? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(17), 21486-21498. DOI:10.1007/s11356-020-11839-0.
Gokmenoglu, K.K. and Taspinar, N., 2018. Testing the agriculture-induced EKC hypothesis: The case of Pakistan. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(23), 22829-22841. doi:10.1007/s11356-018-2330-6.
Granger, C.W.J. 1969. Investigating causal relations by econometric models and cross-spectral methods. Econometrica, 37, 424-438.
Gyamfi, B.A., Adedoyin, F.F., Bein, M.A., Bekun, F.V. and Agozie, D.Q., 2021. The anthropogenic consequences of energy consumption in E7 economies: Juxtaposing roles of renewable, coal, nuclear, oil and gas energy: Evidence from panel quantile method. Journal of Cleaner Production, 295, 126373.
Habiba, U., Xinbang, C. and Ahmad, R.I., 2021. The influence of stock market and financial institution development on carbon emissions with the importance of renewable energy consumption and foreign direct investment in G20 countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(47), 67677-67688.
Haldar, A. and Sethi, N., 2021. Effect of institutional quality and renewable energy consumption on CO2 emissions: An empirical investigation for developing countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(12), 15485-15503. doi:10.1007/s11356-020-11532-2.
Haseeb, A., Xia, E., Baloch, M.A., and Abbas, K., 2018. Financial development, globalization, and CO2 emission in the presence of EKC: evidence from BRICS countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(31), 31283-31296.
Hosseini, S.M., Saifoddin, A., Shirmohammadi, R. and Aslani, A., 2019. Forecasting of CO2 emissions in Iran based on time series and regression analysis. Energy Reports, 5, 619-631.
Hu, D., Jiao, J., Tang, Y., Han, X. and Sun, H., 2021. The effect of global value chain position on green technology innovation efficiency: from the perspective of environmental regulation. Ecological Indicators, 121, 107195. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.107195.
Hussain, I. and Rehman, A., 2021. Exploring the dynamic interaction of CO2 emission on population growth, foreign investment, and renewable energy by employing ARDL bounds testing approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Control Series, 28(29), 39387–39397.
Idrees, M. and Majeed, M.T., 2022. Income inequality, financial development, and ecological footprint: fresh evidence from an asymmetric analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(19), 27924-27938.
Kahouli, B., Alrasheedy, B.B., Chaaben, N. and Triki, R., 2022. Understanding the relationship between electric power consumption, technological transfer, financial development, and environmental quality. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(12), 17331-17345.
Kang, Y., Zhao, T. and Yang, Y., 2016. Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions in China: A spatial panel data approach. Ecological Indicators, 63, 231-239.
Khan, H., Weili, L. and Khan, I., 2022a. Institutional quality, financial development, and the influence of environmental factors on carbon emissions: evidence from a global perspective. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(9), 13356-13368.
Khan, M.K., Babar, S.F., Oryani, B., Dagar, V., Rehman, A., Zakari, A. and Khan, M.O., 2022b. Role of financial development, environmental-related technologies, research and development, energy intensity, natural resource depletion, and temperature in sustainable environment in Canada. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(1), 622-638.
Khaskheli, A., Jiang, Y., Raza, S.A., Khan, K.A. and Qureshi, M.A., 2021. Financial development, international trade, and environmental degradation: a nonlinear threshold model based on panel smooth transition regression. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(21), 26449-26460.
Killebrew, K. and Wolff, H., 2010. Environmental impacts of agricultural technologies. Agricultural Policy and Statistics Team of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, EPAR Brief No 65. Retrieved from
Kumar, A., Kalhoro, M.R., Kumar, R., Bhutto, N.A. and Shaikh, R. 2021. Environmental quality: examining the role of financial development, institutional capacity, and corruption. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(38), 53781-53792.
Lasisi, T.T., Alola, A.A., Eluwole, K.K., Ozturen, A., and Alola, U.V. 2020. The environmental sustainability effects of income, labour force, and tourism development in OECD countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 27, 21231–21242.
Le, H.T., and Hoang, D.P. 2022. Economic sanctions and environmental performance: the moderating roles of financial market development and institutional quality. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(13), 19657-19678.
Li, J., Jiang, T., Ullah, S. and Majeed, M.T., 2022. The dynamic linkage between financial inflow and environmental quality: evidence from China and policy options. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(1), 1051-1059.
Li, K., Hu, E., Xu, C., Musah, M., Kong, Y., Mensah, I. A., Zu, J., Jiang, W. and Su, Y., 2021. A heterogeneous analysis of the nexus between energy consumption, economic growth, and carbon emissions: Evidence from the Group of Twenty (G20) countries. Energy Exploration and Exploitation, 39(2), 815-837. doi:10.1177/0144598720980198.
Li, K., Zu, J., Musah, M., Mensah, I. A., Kong, Y., Owusu-akomeah, M., Shi, Sh., Jiang, Q., Antwi, S.K. and Agyemang, J.K., 2022. The link between urbanization, energy consumption, foreign direct investments, and CO2 emissions: empirical evidence from the emerging seven (E7) countries. Energy Exploration and Exploitation, 40(2), 477-500. doi:10.1177/01445987211023854
Li, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhao, X. and Tian, X., 2018. The influence of US and China's CO2 transfer embodied in final consumption on global emission. Energy Procedia, 152, 835-840.
Liu, L.C., Cao, D. and Wei, Y. M., 2016. What drives intersectoral CO2 emissions in China? Journal of Cleaner Production, 133, 1053-1061.
Liu, Z., 2014. An Empirical Analysis of the Environmental Effects of China’s Agricultural Products Trade. Exploration of Economic Problems, 12, 110–117.
Lobell, D.B. and Gourdji, S.M., 2012. The influence of climate change on global crop productivity. Plant physiology, 160(4), 1686-1697.
Madani, K., 2021. Have international sanctions impacted Iran’s environment? World, 2, 231-252.
Maduka, A.C., Ogwu, S. O. and Ekesiobi, C.S., 2022. Assessing the moderating effect of institutional quality on economic growth—carbon emission nexus in Nigeria. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 1-15.
Mehmood, U., Tariq, S., Ul-Haq, Z. and Meo, M.S., 2021. Does the modifying role of institutional quality remains homogeneous in GDP-CO2 emission nexus? New evidence from ARDL approach. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 10167-10174.
Mohammadi Bagheri, A., 2010. Short-term and Long-term Relationships between Gross Domestic Product, Energy Consumption, and Carbon Emissions in Iran. Journal of Energy Economics Studies, 7(27), 101-129. (In Persian with English abstract).
Mohanty, S. and Sethi, N., 2022. The energy consumption-environmental quality nexus in BRICS countries: the role of outward foreign direct investment. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(13), 19714-19730.
Musa, M. S., Jelilov, G., Iorember, P. T. and Usman, O., 2021. Effects of tourism, financial development, and renewable energy on environmental performance in EU-28: does institutional quality matter? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(38), 53328-53339.
Musah, M., Kong, Y., Mensah, I.A., Antwi, S.K., and Donkor, M., 2021a. The connection between urbanization and carbon emissions: panel evidence from West Africa. Environmental Development and Sustainability, 23, 11525-11552.
Musah, M., Kong, Y., Mensah, I. A., Li, K., Vo, X. V., Bawuah, J., et al. 2021b. Trade openness and CO2 emanations: a heterogeneous analysis on the developing eight (D8) countries, Environ Sci Pollut Res, 44200-44215.
Nasrnia, F. and Esmaeili, A., 2009. The Ali Relationship between Energy and Employment, Investment, and Value Added in the Agricultural Sector. In Proceedings of the 7th Iranian Agricultural Economics Conference. Iran Agricultural and Natural Resources University. (In Persian with English abstract).
Nayak, D., Saetnan, E., Cheng, K., Wang, W., Koslowski, F., et al. 2015. Management opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese agriculture. Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment, 209, 108-124.
Nonejad, M. and Roozitalab, A., 2018. The Effects of Economic Growth and Energy Consumption on Environmental Pollution: A Case Study of Iran. Journal of Environmental and Natural Resource Economics, 2(3), 99-124. (In Persian with English abstract).
Nosheen, M., Iqbal, J. and Khan, H.U., 2021. Analyzing the Linkage among CO2 Emissions, Economic Growth, Tourism, and Energy Consumption in the Asian Economies. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28, 16707-16719.
Olivier, J.G. and Peters, J.A., 2020. Trends in global CO2 and total greenhouse gas emissions, 2020 report. PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. Retrieved from
Owusu, P.A. and Asumadu-Sarkodie, S., 2017. Is there a causal effect between agricultural production and carbon dioxide emissions in Ghana? Environmental Engineering Research, 22(1), 40-54.
Ozturk, I., Aslan, A. and Altinoz, B., 2021. Investigating the nexus between CO2 emissions, economic growth, energy consumption and pilgrimage tourism in Saudi Arabia. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja, 1-16.
Persson, T. and Tabellini, G., 1994. Is inequality harmful for growth? The American Economic Review, 84(3),
Pesaran, M.H. and Shin, Y., 1999. An autoregressive distributed lag modeling approach to cointegration analysis. In Econometrics and Economic Theory in the 20th Century (Chapter 11). The Ragnar Frisch Centennial Symposium.
Pesaran, M.H. and Smith, R., 2014. Signs of Impact Effects in Time Series Regression Model. Economics Letters, 122(2), 150-153.
Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y. and Smith, R.J., 1996. Testing for the existence of a long-run relationship. Cambridge: Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge.
Pesaran, M.H., Shin, Y. and Smith, R.J., 2001. Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16(3), 289-326.
Pezhoyan, J. and Tabrizian, B., 2010. Investigating the Relationship between Economic Growth and Environmental Pollution Using a Dynamic Simulation Model. Economic Research Journal, 10(3), 203-175.
Radmehr, R., Ali, E.B., Shayanmehr, S., Saghaian, S., Darbandi, E., Agbozo, E. and Sarkodie, S.A., 2022. Assessing the global drivers of sustained economic development: The role of trade openness, financial development, and FDI. Sustainability, 14(21), 14023.
Rahman, M.M., Saidi, K. and Mbarek, M.B., 2020. Economic Growth in South Asia: The Role of CO2 Emissions, Population Density and Trade Openness. Heliyon, 6.
Raihan, A. and Tuspekova, A., 2022. Nexus between economic growth, energy use, agricultural productivity, and carbon dioxide emissions: new evidence from Nepal. Energy Nexus, 7(April), 100113.
Raihan, A., Ahmed, D., Farhana, S., Ul, A., Islam, M., Faruk, O. and Mahmood, A., 2022. Nexus between economic growth, energy use, urbanization, agricultural productivity, and carbon dioxide emissions: new insights from Bangladesh. Energy Nexus, 8, 100144.
Ramzan, M., Iqbal, H.A., Usman, M. and Ozturk, I., 2022. Environmental pollution and agricultural productivity in Pakistan: New insights from ARDL and wavelet coherence approaches. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29, 28749–28768.
Rej, S. and Nag, B., 2022. Investigating the role of capital formation to achieve carbon neutrality in India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research.
Reynolds, T.W., Waddington, S.R., Anderson, C.L., Chew, A., True, Z. and Cullen, A., 2015. Environmental impacts and constraints associated with the production of major food crops in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Food Security, 7(4), 795–822.
Sahoo, M., and Sethi, N., 2021. The intermittent effects of renewable energy on ecological footprint: evidence from developing countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(40), 56401–56417.
Sahoo, M. and Sethi, N., 2022. The dynamic impact of urbanization, structural transformation, and technological innovation on ecological footprint and PM2.5: evidence from newly industrialized countries. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 24(3), 4244–4277.
Salahuddin, M., Gow, J., Ali, M.I., Hossain, M.R., Al-Azami, K.S., Akbar, D. and Gedikli, A., 2019. Urbanization-globalization-CO2 emissions nexus revisited: empirical evidence from South Africa. Heliyon, 5, E01974.
Shafiei, S. and Salehi Kamroodi, M., 2020. Spatial Effects of Agricultural Sector Development on Environmental Quality. Environmental Science Studies, 5(2), 2528-2521. (In Persian with English abstract).
Shahid, R., Li, S., Ning, Y. and Gao, J., 2022. Pathway to green growth: A panel-ARDL model of environmental upgrading, environmental regulations, and GVC participation for the Chinese manufacturing industry. Frontiers in Environmental Science, 10.
Sharma, G.D., Shah, M.I., Shahzad, U., Jain, M. and Chopra, R., 2021. Exploring the nexus between agriculture and greenhouse gas emissions in BIMSTEC region: the role of renewable energy and human capital as moderators. Journal of Environmental Management, 297(July), 113316.
Sharma, R., Sinha, A. and Kautish, P., 2021. Does financial development reinforce environmental footprints? Evidence from emerging Asian countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(8), 9067–9083.
Smith, P., Bustamante, M., Ahammad, H., Clark, H., Dong, H., Elsiddig, E.A., Haberl, H., Harper, R., House, J. I., Jafari, M., Masera, O., Mbow, C., Ravindranath, H., Rice, C.W., Abad, C.R., Romanovskaya, A., Sperling, F. and Tubiello, F.N, 2014. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.
Szymczyk, K., Şahin, D., Bağcı, H., and Kaygın, C.Y., 2021. The effect of energy usage, economic growth, and financial development on CO2 emission management: An analysis of OECD countries with a high environmental performance index. Energies, 14, 4671.
Tahir, T., Luni, T., Majeed, M.T. and Zafar, A., 2021. The impact of financial development and globalization on environmental quality: Evidence from South Asian economies. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 28(7), 8088–8101.
Tariq, S., Ul-Haq, Z., Imran, A., Mehmood, U., Aslam, M.U. and Mahmood, K., 2017. CO2 emissions from Pakistan and India and their relationship with economic variables. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 15(4), 1301-1312.
Tekce, M. and Deniz, P., 2016. The impacts of climate change on agricultural trade in the MENA region. Research in World Economy, 7.
Tian, X., Geng, Y., Sarkis, J. and Zhong, S., 2018. Trends and features of embodied flows associated with international trade based on bibliometric analysis. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 131, 148-157.
Ullah, A., Khan, D., Khan, I. and Zheng, S., 2018. Does agricultural ecosystem cause environmental pollution in Pakistan? Promise and menace. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25, 13938-13955.
Usman, A., Ozturk, I., Muhammad, S., Abbas, M., Ullah, S. and Imran, M., 2022. Progress in nuclear energy revealing the nexus between nuclear energy and ecological footprint in STIRPAT model of advanced economies: Fresh evidence from novel CS-ARDL model. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 148, 104220.
Usman, M. and Hammar, N., 2021. Dynamic relationship between technological innovations, financial development, renewable energy, and ecological footprint: Fresh insights based on the STIRPAT model for Asia
Pacific Economic Cooperation countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(12), 15519-15536.
Usman, M., Yaseen, M.R., Kousar, R. and Makhdum, M.S.A., 2021. Modeling financial development, tourism, energy consumption, and environmental quality: Is there any discrepancy between developing and developed countries? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(41), 58480-58501.
Vermeulen, S.J., Campbell, B.M. and Ingram, J.S. 2012. Climate change and food systems. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 37, 195-222.
Voumik, L.C., Rahman, M.H. and Hossain, M.S. 2022. Investigating the subsistence of Environmental Kuznets Curve in the midst of economic development, population, and energy consumption in Bangladesh: imminent of ARDL model. Heliyon, 8(8), e10357. doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e10357
Voumik, L.C. and Ridwan, M., 2023. Impact of FDI, industrialization, and education on the environment in Argentina: ARDL approach. Heliyon, 9(1), e12872. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon. 2023.e12872
Wang, L., Vo, X.V., Shahbaz, M. and Ak, A., 2020. Globalization and carbon emissions: Is there any role of agriculture value-added, financial development, and natural resource rent in the aftermath of COP21? Journal of Environmental Management, 268, 110712.
Wang, Y., Kang, Y., Wang, J. and Xu, L., 2017. Panel estimation for the impacts of population-related factors on CO2 emissions: A regional analysis in China. Ecological Indicators, 78, 322-330.
Weili, L., Khan, H. and Han, L., 2022. The impact of information and communication technology, financial development, and energy consumption on carbon dioxide emission: Evidence from the Belt and Road countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(19), 27703-27718.
Wu, L., Wang, H., Zhu, D., Wang, H. and Zhu, D., 2015. Analysis of consumer demand for traceable pork in China based on a real choice experiment. China Agricultural Economic Review.
Xuezhou, W., Manu, E.K., and Akowuah, I.N., 2022. Financial development and environmental quality: The role of economic growth among the regional economies of Sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 29(16), 23069-23093.
Yang, B., Jahanger, A. and Ali, M., 2021a. Remittance inflows affect the ecological footprint in BICS countries: Do technological innovation and financial development matter? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(18), 23482-23500.
Yang, B., Jahanger, A., Usman, M. and Khan, M.A. 2021b. The dynamic linkage between globalization, financial development, energy utilization, and environmental sustainability in GCC countries. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(13), 16568-16588.
Yang, X., Li, N., Mu, H., Pang, J., Zhao, H. and Ahmad, M., 2021. Study on the long-term impact of economic globalization and population aging on CO2 emissions in OECD countries. Science of The Total Environment, 787, 147625.
Yazdi, S.K., and Shakouri, B., 2014. The impact of energy consumption, income, trade, urbanization and financial development on carbon emissions in Iran. Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(21), 1293-1301.
Yuan R, Xu C, Kong F. Decoupling agriculture pollution and carbon reduction from economic growth in the Yangtze River Delta, China. PLoS One. 2023 Jan 20;18(1): e0280268. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0280268. PMID: 36662737; PMCID: PMC9858329
Zanjani, Z., Soares, I. and Macedo, P., 2022. The nexus between CO2 emissions from electricity generation, GDP and energy intensity using a complete maximum entropy approach: The case of Iran. Energy Reports, 8, 319-324.
Zeeshan, M., Han, J., Rehman, A., Ullah, I. and Alam Afridi, F.E., 2021. Exploring determinants of financial system and environmental quality in high-income developed countries of the world: The demonstration of robust penal data estimation techniques. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(43), 61665-61680.
Zia, S., Noor, M.H., Khan, M.K., Bibi, M., Godil, D.I., Quddoos, M.U. and Anser, M.K., 2021. Striving towards environmental sustainability: How natural resources, human capital, financial development, and economic growth interact with ecological footprint in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(37), 52499-52513. doi: 10.1007/s11356-021-14342-2.