Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Research, Environmental Research Institute, Kerman Graduate University of Advanced Technology, Kerman, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Studies, Research Institute for Humanities Research and Development (SAMT), Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Urban Design, Faculty of Architecture and Urban Planning, University of Arts, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Urban Design, Faculty of Urban Planning, Fine Arts Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

5 Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: The development of the necessary infrastructure to enhance the walkability in urban areas has an important role in sustainable urban development and from various aspects of the environment, public health and social justice can improve the quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the pedestrian capability approach for the development of a sustainable city in District 16 of Tehran Municipality as one of the greenest urban areas in Tehran.
Material and methods: In this research, the criteria, qualities, characteristics and physical, functional and spatial variables of the man-made environment that affect the amount of walking in the D16 of Tehran Municipality have been studied and collected. Then, using GIS spatial analysis and prioritization of indicators using Analytical Hierarchical Process, the pedestrianization of different parts of the region has been investigated.
Results and discussion: Criteria affecting the location of sidewalks and greenways in the D16 in 9 main categories and 30 sub-criteria were collected in a hierarchical structure and their spatial information was collected. The diversity and wide range of indicators evaluated results in a comprehensive analysis of the current situation can be considered as one of the strengths of this study. Each of these indicators was analyzed for the study area and the situation of walking potential in the D16 was studied based on each of the indicators. Using the preference of criteria based on the opinion of experts and the overlap of different layers, finally, the map of the degree of walkability and the map of the degree of the walkability of the road network in the 16th district of Tehran Municipality was obtained. According to the results, the spatial value shows the highest values ​​in Khazaneh, Naziabad and Bagh Azari neighborhoods, respectively. In addition, Bukharai Street, Madaen Street, Rajaei Street and Street next to Besat Park are the axes with the highest amount of pedestrian traffic in the region, respectively.
Conclusion: Based on detailed traffic studies, the best places to define sidewalks or urban greenways were identified, and since these axes have a high volume of pedestrian traffic, it is very important to pay attention to the needs of pedestrians in them. The three neighborhoods of Naziabad, Aliabad North and Khazaneh were identified as three suitable areas for the development of pedestrian axes in the region and were introduced to further concentrate the municipality of the region.


Adlakha, D., Hipp, J.A. and Brownson, R.C., 2016. Adaptation and evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale in India (NEWS-India). International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 13(4), 401.
Cerin, E., Saelens, B.E., Sallis, J.F. and Frank, L.D., 2006. Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale: validity and development of a short form. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 38(9), 1682.
Chippendale, T., and Boltz, M. (2015). The neighborhood environment: Perceived fall risk, resources, and strategies for fall prevention. Gerontologist, 55(4), 575-583. doi:10.1093/geront/gnu019
Desa, U. (2018). World urbanization prospects 2018. United Nations Department for Economic and Social Affiars.
Fernandez-Maldonado , A.M., 2012. ICT and Spatial Planning in European Cities: Reviewing the New Charter of Athens. Built Environment. 38(4), 469-483.
Forsyth, A., 2015. What is a walkable place? The walkability debate in urban design. Urban design international. 20(4), 274-292.
Habibian, M., and Hosseinzadeh, A. (2018). Walkability index across trip purposes. Sustainable cities and society. 42, 216-225.
Hiremath, R. B., Balachandra, P., Kumar, B., Bansode, S. S., and Murali, J. (2013). Indicator-based urban sustainabilityA review. Energy for sustainable development. 17(6), 555-563.
Kashef, M. (2011). Walkability and residential suburbs: a multidisciplinary perspective. Journal of Urbanism, 4(1), 39-56.
Labdaoui, K., Mazouz, S., Acidi, A., Cools, M., Moeinaddini, M., and Teller, J. (2021). Utilizing thermal comfort and walking facilities to propose a comfort walkability index (CWI) at the neighbourhood level. Building and Environment, 193, 107627.
Mavoa, S., Boulangé, C., Eagleson, S., Stewart, J., Badland, H. M., Giles-Corti, B., and Gunn, L. (2018). Identifying appropriate land-use mix measures for use in a national walkability index. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 11(1), 681-700.
Nations, U. (2014). World urbanization prospects. World urbanization prospects: Highlights, 28.
Owen, N., Humpel, N., Leslie, E., Bauman, A., and Sallis, J. F. (2004). Understanding environmental influences on walking: review and research agenda. American journal of preventive medicine, 27(1), 67-76.
Padash, A., Vahidi, H., Fattahi, R., and Nematollahi, H. (2021). Analyzing and Evaluating Industrial Ecology Development Model in Iran Using FAHP-DPSIR. International Journal of Environmental Research, 1-15.
Pikora, T., Giles-Corti, B., Bull, F., Jamrozik, K., and Donovan, R. (2003). Developing a framework for assessment of the environmental determinants of walking and cycling. Social science & medicine, 56(8), 1693-1703.
Rundle, A. G., Chen, Y., Quinn, J. W., Rahai, N., Bartley, K., Mooney, S. J., and Neckerman, K. M. (2019). Development of a neighborhood walkability index for studying neighborhood physical activity contexts in communities across the US over the past three decades. Journal of urban health, 96(4), 583-590.
Saaty, T. L. (2004). Decision making—the analytic hierarchy and network processes (AHP/ANP). Journal of systems science and systems engineering, 13(1), 1-35.
Telega, A., Telega, I., and Bieda, A. (2021). Measuring walkability with GIS—Methods overview and new approach proposal. Sustainability, 13(4), 1883.
Urbanism, C. f. t. N. (2000). Charter of the new urbanism. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 20(4), 339-341.
Vahidi, H., Ghazban, F., Abdoli, M., Kazemi, V., and Banaei, S. (2014). Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process Disposal Method Selection for an Industrial State; Case Study Charmshahr. Arabian Journal for Science & Engineering (Springer Science & Business Media BV), 39, (2).