Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Weed Research, Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences and Food Industry, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Consumption of organophosphorus pesticides in agriculture causes many environmental problems. Water and soil pollution and disruption of the balance of natural ecosystems, the emergence of new pests and diseases, the presence of pesticide residues in agricultural products and the resulting health effects have made the consumption management of organic phosphorus pesticides an unavoidable necessity. Despite the low per capita consumption of pesticides in the country on a global scale, the unfavorable use of organophosphorus pesticides in some parts of the country, including the Northern provinces and the resulting pollution, is one of the most important environmental issues in the country. In this study, according to the EIQ (Environmental Impact Quotient), diazinon pesticide was evaluated as hazardous to the environment of the study area due to its widespread use against Chilo suppressalis in water and soil of paddy fields.
Material and methods: Detection of diazinon pesticide in water and soil of paddy fields in Mazandaran province was done by determining fixed stations for sampling in accordance with spraying paddy fields. A total of 50 soil and water samples were gathered for the first cultivation and 30 soil and water samples were gathered for the second cultivation and were measured by Gas Chromatography after being transferred to the laboratory. Sampling was done from late June to mid-August for the first cultivation, and from the first week of September to late October for the second cultivation of rice. Sampling was done in three seasons: spring, summer (before transplanting or during harvest) and autumn (for the second rice cultivation).
Results and discussion:  The results of measuring the target pesticide show a significant difference in the amount of diazinon in the water of the first cultivation compared to the second cultivation and the soil of the first cultivation compared to the second cultivation. Also, the average of diazinon in the water samples of the second cultivation was 7.8 times higher compared to the first cultivation and 1.66 times higher in the soil samples of the second cultivation compared to the first cultivation, which indicates high and alarming amounts of diazinon in the second rice cultivation. Stability and solubility of diazinon, as well as the environmental conditions of Mazandaran province, especially the high groundwater level, extend the life of this pesticide and consequently cause serious environmental hazards.
Conclusion:  Sustainable use of cultivated lands with a focus on improving production efficiency and increasing crop efficiency, creating a strategic center and a single regulator in the country to manage pesticide consumption, develop general and specialized training for groups of stakeholders in the production, supply and consumption of pesticides, registration and application of pesticides based on environmental impact factor, gradual removal and replacement of high-risk pesticide diazinon and the use of new methods and technologies to deal with important pests of rice are among the most important things that should be considered as strategies and executive policies resulting from research.


Abbasian, H., Ashayeri, A., Hosseinmarzeh,  S.H. and Goshtasb Meigooni, H., 2014. Residues of diazinon in Ab-bandans supplied by Babolroud, Talar and Siaroud Rivers, Iran. Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment. 6, 153–158.
Abdollahzadeh, G., Sharifzadeh, M.S. and Damalas, C.A., 2015. Perceptions of the beneficial and harmful effects of pesticides among Iranian rice farmers influence the adoption of biological control. Crop Protection. 75, 124–131.
Aghilinejad, M.A., Mohammadi, S. and Farshad A.A., 2007. The effect of pesticides on farmers’ health. Research in Medicine. 31, 327331. (In Persian with English abstract).
Ahmadi-Mamaqani, Y., Khorasani, N.,  Talebi, K.H.,  Hashemi, S.H,  Rafiee, G.H. and  Bahadori-Khosroshahi, F., 2011. Diazinon Fate and Toxicity in the Tajan River (Iran) Ecosystem, Environmental Engineering Science. 28, 859868.

Ara, A.G., Haque, W. and Hasanuzzaman, M., 2014. Detection of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides residues in water samples of Taragong Thana in Rangpur district in Bangladesh. Research Journal of Environmental and Earth Sciences. 6, 85–89.

Arjmandi, R.,  Tavakol, M. and Shayeghi, M., 2010. Determination of organophosphorus insecticide residues in the rice paddies. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology.  7, 175–182.
 Bahramifar, N., Taheri, K., Moradi, H.R. and Ahmadpour, M., 2015. The role of agricultural and residential land-uses on organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides residues in water and sediments of Siahrud river, Qaemshahr. Journal of Environmental Studies. 41, 8–10. (In Persian with English abstract).
Bouman, B.A., Castaneda, M. and Bhuiyan, A.R., 2002. Nitrate and Pesticide Contamination of Groundwater under Rice-based Cropping System: past and current evidence from the Philippines. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment. 92, 185–199.
Crawford, C.G., 1995. Occurrence of pesticide in white river, Indiana, U.S. Geological Survey, 1–3.
Ebrahimzadeh, M.A., Shokrzadeh, M. and Bioukabadi, M., 2005. Effect of organophosphorous pesticides on acetyl cholinesterase activity in agricultural workers. Journal of Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences.7,1–7. (In Persian with English abstract).
Environmental Protection Agency, 2014. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria: EPA 822-R-02-047.
Fadaei, A., Dehghani, M.H., Nasseri, S., Mahvi, A.H., Rastkari, N. and Shayeghi, M., 2012. Organophosphorous pesticides in surface water of Iran. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 88, 867–869.
Fushiwaki, Y., Hamamura,T., Hasegawa, A. and Urano, K., 1993. Environment pollution by pesticide from Golf Courses in Kanagawa Prefecture. Japan Journal of Toxicol Environ Health. 39, 543–548.
Ghassempour, A., Mohammadkhah, A., Najafi, F. and Rajabzadeh, M., 2002. Monitoring of the pesticide diazinon in soil, stem and surface water of rice fields. Analytical Sciences. 18, 779–783.
Karyab, H., Mahvi, A.H., Nazmara, S. and Bahojb, A., 2013. Determination of water sources contamination to diazinon and malathion and spatial pollution patterns in Qazvin, Iran. Bull Environ Contam and Toxicol. 90, 126–131.
Khazaei, S.H., Khorasani, N., Talebi Jahromi, K.H. and Ehteshami, M., 2010. Investigation of the groundwater contamination due to the use of diazinon insecticide in Mazandaran Province (case study: Mahmood Abad city). Journal of Natural Environment. 63, 23–32.
Mahdavi, A. and Fahimi, G.H., 2001, Biological control of chilo suppressalis in rice fields and its role in pesticide reduction in North of Iran. Journal of Environmental Science and Tecnology.  9, 31–40. (In Persian with English abstract).
Protocol for monitoring acute and chronic Toxicity in the San Joaquin river watershed, winter (1997-98). California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Pesticide Regulation.
Shayeghi, M., Nasirian, H., Nourjah, N., Baniardelan, M., Shayeghi, F. and Aboulhassani, M., 2009. Cholinesterase activity among spray workers in Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 12, 696701.
Shayeghi, M., Shahtaheri, S.J. and Selseleh, M., 2001. Phosphorus insecticides residues in Mazandaran River Waters (2000). Iranian Journal of Public Health. 30, 115–118.
Shokrzadeh, M., Karami, M. and Ebrahimi Ghadi, M.A., 2013. Measuring organophosphorus Insecticide Residue in Rice Produced in Amol, North of Iran. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. 22, 215-221. (In Persian with English abstract).
Soltaninejad, K. and Abdollahi, M., 2009. Current opinion on the science of organophosphate pesticides and toxic stress: a systematic review. Med Sci Monit. 15, 75–90.
Tavokoli, M., 2007. Environmental Impact Assessment of diazinon in rice fields (a case study on Amol Township rice fields). M.Sc.Thesis. Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
US EPA, 2007. Regulatory history and past assessments for diazinon, Appendix1.
You, J., Weston, D. P. and Lydy, M. J., 2004. A sonication extraction method for the analysis of pyrethroid, organophosphate, and organochlorine pesticides from sediment by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 47, 141–147.
Zhang, Z.L., Hong, H.S., Zhau, J.L., Huang, J. and Yu, G., 2003. Fate and assessment of persistent organic oollutants in water and sediment from Minjiang River Estuary, Southeast China. Chemosphere. 52, 14231430.
Zhao, X. and Huey, H., 2009. A study of degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in river waters and identification of their degradation products by chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Arch Environ Contam Toxical. 56, 646653.