Morphological characteristics of Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill, Morus alba and Acer negundo saplings under water stress in greenhouse and field in Robat Karim

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Forestry and Forest Economics Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

2 Department of Water Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran

3 Department of Public Administration, Faculty of Human Science, Islamic Azad University, Firooz Kooh Branch, Firooz Kooh, Iran


Introduction: One of the main limitations in arid and semi-arid regions is the allocation of water resources for green space development. Since water and drought stresses along with an incorrect selection of species are the main factors that reduce seedling survival in the afforestation stages in arid and semi-arid regions, the aim of the current study is to investigate the morphological characteristics of Ash, Mullberry and Ash leaved maple seedlings in the greenhouse and the field under different water stress in Robat Karim town.
Material and methods: Robat Karim is one of the towns of Tehran Province with an area of 275 square kilometers. To study the effect of water stress on morphological characteristics of seedlings species (three species) in two environment (greenhouse and field), 20 seedlings (120 seedlings in total) were planted in greenhouses and fields and in three water stress levels (two, four and six days after reaching MAD point) were tested in randomized complete block design with five replications. The saplings that reached the MAD point were not irrigated immediately and were subjected to three drought stresses two, four and six days after reaching the MAD point. Then the quantitative appearance characteristics of seedlings include parameters of leaf numbers, leaf size, seedlings height, and collar diameter, dry leaf weight, stem dry weight along with two qualitative characteristics of seedlings, which are leaf freshness and seedling health, were measured.
Results and discussion: The results showed that the number of MAD period times in the greenhouse for Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill. species was 29, Acer negundo 28 and Morus alba 32 and in the field for Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill. species was 20, Acer negundo 20, and Morus alba 17 period times. Generally, in all three studied species, in May, as the first month of the research, the seedlings were in very good condition. In other months, after being under different water stress (two, four and six days), the number of leaves and leaf size always decreased over time. In the case of Ash leaved maple, the number of leaves in the greenhouse area in August was zero (absolute defoliation).
Conclusion: Generally, by increasing water stress, leaf number, leaf size, dry leaf weight, dry stem weight, leaf freshness, and health of the saplings were reduced. It seems that six days after reaching MAD point is the suitable time to irrigate the saplings according to their morphological characteristics. Considering the appearance of seedlings during irrigation, it helps to use water efficiently, prevent over-irrigation and under-irrigation of seedlings and save the relevant costs.


Ahmadauli, KH., 2013. Development of virtual water transfer model to improve the cultivation pattern and optimal use of agricultural water in Iran. Ph.D. Thesis. University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
Alihouri, M., Naseri, A., Boroomand-Nasab, S. and Kiani, A., 2015. Effect of deficit irrigation and water salinity on soil salinity distribution and date plants vegetative growth. Journal of Water and Soil Resources Conservation. 4(3), 329-340. (In Persian with English Abstract)
Amiri, M.J. and Eslamian, S.S., 2010. Investigation of climate change in Iran. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 3 (4), 208-216.
Ardakani, M., 2012. Ecology. University of Tehran Press, Tehran, Iran.
Asgari, M., Javanmiri Pour, M., Etemad, V. and Liaghat, A., 2021. Evaluation of water requirement of Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill and Morus alba under different water stresses in arid region (Case Studty: RobatKarim City). Journal of Echohydrology. 2(3), 289-299. (In Persian with English Abstract)
Asgharpour, E., Azadfar, D. and Saeedi, Z., 2017. Evaluation of Acer cappadocicum Gled seedlings to drought stress. Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology). 30(1), 1-11. (In Persian with English Abstract)
Asri, M., Tabari, M., Alavi Panah., S. and Mahdavi, R., 2006. Investigation of growth and development of (Quercus castaneifolia C. A.Mey) seedlings at different levels of irrigation. Journal of Research and Construction. 78 (3), 167- 177. (In Persian with English Abstract)
Babadaei Samani, R. and Ghetali, A., 2015. Effect of irrigation and different Mulch on some vegetative and reproductive characteristics of starch (Zinnia elegans). Journal of Plant Ecophysiology. 7(23), 204-215. (In Persian with English Abstract).
Bamanian, M.R., Motevasseli, M.M. and Habib Pour, A.A., 2008. Investigating the necessities and creating water supply and irrigation systems for green space, a city with raw water. In Proceedings 3rd National Green Space and Urban Landscape Congress, 23th February, Kish Island, Iran. pp. 329-334.
Barshan, M., Tabari Kouchaksaraei, M., Sadati, S. E. and Shahhosseini, R., 2016. Growth and survival of willow seedling (Salix alba L.) under water deficit stress. Journal of Forest and Wood Product. 69(2), 249-257. (In Persian with English Abstract).
Boustani, A. and Ansari, H., 2011. Investigating the consumption approach in managing urban water demand. Quarterly Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Natural Resources. 9(33), 48-52. (In Persian with English Abstract).
Delfan Azari, N., Rostami shahraji, T., Gholami, V. and Hashemi Garmdareh, S.E., 2020. The effect of different irrigation levels on growth parameters of ash (Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill) seedlings in green space of Tehran city. Journal of Forest Research and Development. 5(2), 229-244. (In Persian with English Abstract).
Djazirehi, M.H., 2010. To afforest an arid environment. University of Tehran Press, Tehran, Iran.
Huang, W., Zhang, J.L., Zhang, S. B., Hu, H. and Cao, K.F., 2013. Differences in the responses of photosystem I and photosystem II of three tree species Cleistanthus sumatranus, Celtis philippensis and Pistacia weinmannifolia exposed to a prolonged drought in a tropical limestone forest. Journal of Tree Physiology. 33(2), 211-220.
Heydari, N., 2006. Sustainable water management and productivity in irrigation networks of watersheds under water stress (Case study: Zayandehrud irrigation network in Isfahan). In Proceedings 1st Technical Workshop on Management, Operation and Maintenance of Irrigation and Drainage Networks, 14th January, Tehran, Iran. p. 162.
Hoff, C. and Rambal, S., 2003. An examination of the interaction between climate, soil and leaf area index in a Quercus ilex ecosystem. Journal of Forest Science. 60(2), 153-161.
Karami, T. and Ghaffarian Bahraman, M., 2017. Study of water crisis and its security challenges (Case study: Rafsanjan town), Scientific-Specialized. Journal of Law Enforcement Knowledge. 8(21), 49-79. (In Persian with English Abstract).
Mossadegh, A., 2011. Water Consumption in Iran and the World. Iranian Agricultural Science Press, Tehran, Iran.
Mozaffarian, V., 2015. Trees and Shrubs of Iran. Farhang Moaser Press, Tehran, Iran.
Nagakura, J., Shigenaga, H.A. and Takahashi, M., 2004. Effect of simulated drought stress on the fine roots of Cedar Japanese in a plantation forest on the Kanto plain, Eastern Japan. Journal of Forest research. 12, 143-151.
Norouzi Haroni, N. and Tabari Koochksaraee, M., 2015. Morpho-physiological responses of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) seedlings to drought stress. Journal of Forest and Wood Product. 68(3), 715-727. (In Persian with English Abstract)
Palik, B., D`amato, A., Franklin, J. and Johnson, K., 2020. Ecological Silviculture; Foundations and applications. In: Lal, R. (Eds.), An Overview of Silviculture. Waveland press, FL, pp. 21-34.
Reddy, A.R., Claitanya, K.V. and Vivekanadan, M., 2004. Drought induced responses of photosynthesis and antioxidant metabolism I higher plants. Journal of Plant Physiology. 161, 1189-1202.
Sarmad Nia, GH. and Kouchaki, A., 1993. Physiological aspects of rainfed agriculture. University of Mashhad Press, Mashhad, Iran.    
Setayesh, R., Kafi, M. and Nabati, J., 2017. Evaluation of drought stress thresholds in ornamental barberry (Berberis thunbergii cv. Atropurpurea) shrub in Mashhad. Journal of Horticultural Science. 30(4), 714-722. (In Persian with English Abstract).
Shao, G., Young, D.R., Porter, J.H. and Hayden, B.P., 1998. An integration of remote sensing and GIS to examine the responses of shrub thicket distributions to shoreline changes on Virginia barrier islands. Journal of Coastal Research. 14, 299-307.
Yang, Y., Liu, Q. and Wang, G.X., 2011. Physiological behaviors of Acer mono under drought and low light. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology. 58(3), 531-537.
Zare Chahouki, M.A. and Bihamta, M.R., 2015. Experimental designs in natural resources sciece. University of Tehran press, Tehran, Iran.
Zehtabian, Gh. and Farshi, A., 2000. Estimation of water requirement of green space plants in arid areas (Case study: Kashan town). Journal of Iranian Natural Resources. 52(2), 63-75. (In Persian with English Abstract).