Selection of suitable plant species for Sungun copper mine reclamation by multiple attribute decision making methods (AHP-SMARTER-TOPSIS)

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Engineering, Faculty of Mining Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

2 Department of Engineering, Faculty of Mining Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Agriculture and Natural Resource, Faculty of Natural Resource, Savadkooh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Savadkooh, Iran


Introduction: The area of the lands that are influenced by mining operations, especially waste dump, is increasing continuously. Therefore, the necessity of mine reclamation is more important than the past. Selecting suitable plant species is one of the main topics in open pit mine reclamation regarding mined land use and environmental protection. 
Material and methods: In this research, the selection of suitable plant species regarding the environmental rehabilitation of Sungun copper mine was performed. At first, suitable plant species were selected by main criteria such as post-mining land use, climatic condition, and ecological parameters of soil. Then, selected species were ranked based on a questionnaire completed by experts using the combination of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique (SMARTER), and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methods. 
Results and discussion: Suitable tree species in acidic and metallic pollutant lands were Ulmus minorJuniperus communisBetula pendulaRobiniapseudoacaciaAcer compestre, and Rhus coriria, respectively. Native tree species such as Ficus caricaFraxinus excelsior, and Juglans regia were selected for the alkaline region, in a decreasing order.
Conclusions: From the selected tree species for this region, the more successful species in reducing pollution and preventing soil erosion are preferred. Robiniapseudoacacia is not considered one of the native trees of the region. Yet, because it is more successful than other trees in environmental protection, it was selected as the superior plant species for this region. Among the native species of the region, Acer campestre has priority due to the purpose of preserving the environment.


Afradi, A., Alavi, I. and Hamidian, H., 2017. Selecting the plant species in the mineral desert area by fuzzy TOPSIS method (case study: Chogart iron ore mine). Journal of Science and Engineering Elites. 2, 229-236.
Afradi, A., Rezazadeh, S. and Alavi, I., 2017. Using PROMETHEE method in prioritizing of plant species planting to reclamation of Sungun copper mine. Eurasian Journal of Biosciences. 11, 1-11.
Akbari, A.D., Osanloo, M. and Hamidian, H., 2006.. Selecting post mining land use through analytical hierarchy processing method: case study in Sungun copper open pit mine of Iran. In Proceedings of the 5th International Symposium on Mine Planning and Equipment Selection (MPES 2006), 20th-22th September, Torino, Italy. p.252.
Alavi, I. and Alinejad, R.H., 2011. Comparison of fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TOPSIS methods for plant species selection (Case study: Reclamation plan of Sungun copper mine; Iran). Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 5, 1104-1113.
Azadi Nejat, S., Jalali, S.G. and Ghodsipoor, S.H., 2009. The use of AHP in evaluation of urban forestry in order to choose appropriate tree species in arid and semi-arid areas. A collection of articles for the third national conference on jungle.
Azimi, Y., 2019. Prediction of seismic wave intensity generated by bench blasting using intelligence committee machines. International Journal of Engineering, 32, 617-627.
Bangian, A.H. and Osanloo, M., 2008. Multi attribute decision model for plant species selection in mine reclamation plans: Case study sungun copper mine. Post-Mining, February, Nancy, France. p. 6-8.
Bangian, A.H., Ataei, M., Sayadi, A. and Gholinejad, A., 2011. The application of fuzzy MADM modeling to define optimum post mining land use for pit area to recognize reclamation costs in open pit mining. Archives of Mining Sciences, 56, 93-118.
Bangian, A.H., Ataei, M., Sayadi, A. and Gholinejad, A., 2012. Optimizing post-mining land use for pit area in open-pit mining using fuzzy decision making method. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 9, 613-628.
Bazzazi, A.A., Osanloo, M. and Soltanmohammadi, H., 2008. Loading-haulage equipment selection in open pit mines based on fuzzy-TOPSIS method. Gospodarka Surowcami Mineralnymi, 24, 87-102.
Behdarvand, M., Hosseini, M., Nabavi, S.M.B. and Sayad, E., 2010. Survey on effects of plantation in variety temperature in middle Zagrus (case study: shahyon Dezful). Human & Environment, 8, 49-54.
Cao, X., 2007. Regulating mine land reclamation in developing countries: The case of China. Land Use Policy, 24, 472-483.
Carrick, P.J. and Krüger, R., 2007. Restoring degraded landscapes in lowland Namaqualand: Lessons from the mining experience and from regional ecological dynamics. Journal of Arid Environments, 70, 767-781.
Chen, H., Zheng, C. and Zhu, Y., 1998. Phosphorus: a limiting factor for restoration of soil fertility in a newly reclaimed coal mined site in Xuzhou, China. Land Degradation & Development, 9, 115-121.
Edwards, W., 1977. How to use multiattribute utility measurement for social decisionmaking. IEEE transactions on systems, man, and cybernetics, 7, 326-340.
Edwards, W. and Barron, F.H., 1994. SMARTS and SMARTER: Improved simple methods for multiattribute utility measurement. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 60, 306-325.
Hendrychová, M., 2008. Reclamation success in post-mining landscapes in the Czech Republic: A review of pedological and biological studies. Journal of Landscape Studies, 1, 63-78.
Holl, K.D., 2002. Long‐term vegetation recovery on reclaimed coal surface mines in the eastern USA. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 960-970.
Hustrulid, W.A., Kuchta, M. and Martin, R.K., 2013. Open pit mine planning and design, two volume set & CD-ROM pack. CRC Press
Lyle Jr, M.S., 1986. Surface mine reclamation manual. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc..
Mendez, M.O. and Maier, R.M., 2008. Phytostabilization of mine tailings in arid and semiarid environments—an emerging remediation technology. Environmental health perspectives, 116, 278-283.
Redente, E.F., & Baker,D.A., 1996. Dierctrevegetation of mine tailing: A case study in Colorado .In Planning, Rehabilitation and Treatment of Disturbed lands, Billings Symposium. 183-191 pp.
Saaty, T.L., 1980. The Analytic Hierarchy Process, New York. Ny: MC Grow Hill.
Sheoran, V., Sheoran, A.S., &Poonia.P. 2010. Soil Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land by Revegetation: A Review,International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water,3, 1-20.
Soltanmohammadi, H., Osanloo, M. and Bazzazi, A.A., 2010. An analytical approach with a reliable logic and a ranking policy for post-mining land-use determination. Land Use Policy, 27, 364-372.
Taha, H.A., 2017. Operations research: an introduction. Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Tamartash, R., Tatian, M.R., Bakhshandeh, L.S. and Shokrian, F., 2010. Study on the aquatic plants species as heavy metals absorbent in the aquatic ecosystems at in the north of Iran. Journal of wetland Eco biology. 1, 81-90.
Tzeng, GH. and Huang, J.J., 2011. Multiple attribute decision making: methods and applications. CRC press.