Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environment, Faculty of Natural Resources and Desert Studies, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 Researcher, Forest and Rangeland Research Department, Agricultural Research and Training Center, Yazd Province, Yazd, Iran


Introduction: Railway construction is one of the important activities in the development of any country. Railway construction operations can have an impact on the environment around the railway. This study investigated the effects of Yazd-Eghlid railway construction on some vegetation and soil characteristics of artemisia and camel grass species located in Kalmand-Bahadoran Protected Area.
Material and methods: In order to evaluate the vegetation and soil variables in the studied types, random-systematic sampling method was used. Random-systematic sampling method is used; Thus, within each brigade, three areas with different distances by rail include the first area (distance 0 to 250 meters), the second area (distance 250 to 500 meters) and the third area (distance 500 to 1000 meters) from Railway was considered and vegetation and soil samples were taken. Within each area, 4 100-meter transects were randomly placed and 2 plots at the beginning and end of each transect were systematically placed. The reason for comparison of more than two groups was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan test using SPSS software.
Results and discussion: The results of this study showed that the construction of a railway in the Kalmand-Bahadoran Protected Area and the measures taken during the construction process may affect the physical and chemical properties of soil and vegetation, which in the Artemisia type causes a significant decrease in the production of plant vegetative form srub (0.81 g) (P <0.05). Also, a significant decrease in electrical conductivity (0.78 ds/m), potassium (0.64), acidity (7.7),lime percentage (26.25) (P <0.05), and percentage of clay (4%) (P <0.01) was observed. In the Cornulaca type, construction of railways significantly increased production (6.13 g), density (1.42), and percentage of cover form shrub (6.01) (P <0.05). It also significantly reduced the production of shrub vegetative form (0), the percentage of shrub vegetative form cover (0.17) (P <0.05) and the density of shrub vegetative form (0) (0.01), (P <0.01). Regarding the effect of railway construction on soil parameters of this type, it can be said that railway construction causes a significant increase in the percentage of rock (93%) and a significant decrease in the percentage of silt (2%), electrical conductivity (ds / m66 (P <0.05) and also significantly reduced organic matter (0.18), phosphorus (5.25 ppm) and potassium (0.63 ppm) (P <0.01).
Conclusion:The construction of the railway and activities that take place during the processes for the construction of the railway units can cause the movement of soil around the railway, whichcauses soil and water erosion in the region that may lead toa decrease in soil quality in the areas near the railway and consequently, the decrease of vegetation production in the area.


Aghajan Tabarali, H., Mohseni Saravi, M., Chaichi, M. and Heidari, Q., 2015.Investigation of the effect of grazing intensity on some physicochemical characteristics of soil and vegetation in Vaz watershed, Mazandaran province. Journal of Watershed Management. 6(1), 111-123.
Amini, A.M. and Jamshidi, A.,2013. Evaluation of effective factors on rangeland destruction from the point of view of experts of natural resources management in Ilam province. Journal of Natural Resources Protection and Exploitation. 91-105.
Asadi, M., Sefidi, K., Hashemi Majd, K. and Moammari, M., 2015. Investigation of the effect of different intensities of livestock grazing on some physical and chemical properties of soil (Case study: Rangelands of the southeastern slope of Sabalan ), In Proceedings 2ndConference on the Protection of Natural Resources and the Environment, 4and 5 March, Ardabil-Iran.1-7.
Bagheri, R., Mohseni Saravi, M. and Chaichi, M., 2009. Investigation of the effect of livestock grazing intensity on some soil chemical properties in semi-arid region Case study: Khabar National Park and surrounding rangelands. Rangeland Scientific Research Journal. 3(3), 412-398.
Batoli, H. and Shahmoradi, A., 2012. Ecology of camel grass range plant in desert sand fields of Isfahan. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research. 3, 497-490.
De-zhi,W., Peng-hua, Q. and Yuan-min,F., 2020. Scale effect of Li-Xiang Railway construction impact on landscape pattern and its ecological risk. 2493-2503.
Elmi, M., 2019. Detailed Stage Studies of Kalmand and Bahadoran Protected Area Management Plan.1, 74.
Fattahi, B., Jafari M. Aghabigi Amir, S. Salehi, M., Karimi, A. and Karami, A., 2017. The effect of different intensities of livestock grazing on soil chemical properties. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources. 40, 941-951.
Fotouhi, M., 2006. Investigation of methods to reduce adverse effects in railway projects in the biological environment. 1-20.
Galera,H., Sudnik-Wójcikowska, B., Staszewski, T. and Malawska, M., 2012. Railway Tracks - Habitat Conditions, Contamination, Floristic Settlement. Environment and Natural Resources Research. 86-95.
General Meteorohogical Department of Yazd Prpvince. 2019.
Ghasemi Eghbash, F. and Maleki, B., 2015. Ecological effects of forest roads on some vegetation and soil variables of Amingdalusscoparia Spach forest almond. Iranian Forest Ecology.3(6), 1- 8.
Hatami Chegni, R., Olfati, A. and Noureddini, M., 2016. The role of transportation systems in the development and protection of the environment, 1- 14.
Hossein Jafari, S., 2013. Comparison of vegetation and soil characteristics between two areas under livestock and wildlife grazing (Case study of Det Kalmand - Bahadoran, Yazd province). Master Thesis of Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Faculty of Natural Resources.
Hosseinzadeh, G., Jalilvand, H. and Tamratash, R., 2007. Vegetation changes and some soil chemical properties in rangelands with different grazing intensities. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research. 4, 512- 500.
Hui, C., Shuang-cheng, L. and Yi-li,Z., 2003. impact of road constrauction on vegetation along side QINGHAI-XIZANG highway and railway. Chinese geographical science. 340-346.
Iwara, A.I., Gani, B. S., Adeyemi, J.A. and Ewa, E. E,. 2013. Effect of road construction on adjoining soil properties in Tinapa Resort. south-southern Nigeria. 42-48.
Jafari Haghighi, M., 2003. Soil decomposition methods, sampling and important physical and chemical decompositions with emphasis on theoretical and practical principles. Nedaye Doohi Publishing. 240.
Kang, J. and Ke-Fei,L., 2016. Influence of Highway Construction on Soil Environment within Highway Region. 1351-1363.
Li,Y., Yu, J., Ning, K., Du, S., Han, D., Qu, F., Wang, G., Fu, Y. and Zhan, C., 2014. Ecological Effects of Roads on the Plant Diversity of Coastal Wetland in the Yellow River Delta. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. 1-8.
Mesdaghi, M., 2003. Range Management in Iran, Astan Quds Razavi Publications. Mashhad. 333.
Mirza Shahi, K. and Bazargan, K., 2015. Organic Matter Management, Ministry of Jihad Agriculture, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization. Water and Soil Research Institute. 535, 1-19.
Moghadam, M.R., 1998. Rangeland and Rangeland. University of Tehran Press. 470.
Naghdi, R., Poor Babaei, H. Heidari, M. and Nouri, M., 2014. Investigation of the effects of forest road on vegetation and some physical and chemical properties of soil, (Case study: Shafarood forests, series 2). Ecology of Iranian forests, 22(3), 64-49.
Najafi Ghiri, M., Kiasi, Y., Khademi, F., Mahmoudi, A., Bustani, H., Mukarram, M. and Gholami, M., 2018. Effects of road on vegetation and some physical characteristics, Chemical and usability of soil elements (Case study: Darab-Bandar Abbas Road). Journal of Soil and Water Sciences. 310-299.
Nishtman, K., 2018. Investigation of economic value of soil protection function of rangeland vegetation. Iranian Rangeland Management Association. 1-9.
Pereira, P., Gimeìnez-Morera, A., Novara, A., Keesstra, S., Jordán, A., Masto, R ., Brevik, E., Azorin-Molina, C. and Cerdà, A., 2015.The impact of road and railway embankments on runo_ and soil erosion in eastern Spain, Hydrol.Earth SystemSciences. 12, 12947–12985.
Radziemska,M., Gusiatin,Z., Kowal,P., Bęś,K., Majewski,G., Jeznach-Steinhagen,A., Mazur,Z., Liniauskienė., E. and Brtnický, M., 2020. Environmental impact assessment of risk elements from railway transport with the use of pollution indices, a biotest and bioindicators. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 1-25.
Rahimi, H., 2003. A study of the environmental role of rangelands in sustainable development. 57-49.
Raigani, B., Zehtabian, G., Azarnivand, H., Khajehuddin, J. and Alavi Panah, K., 2014. Investigation of vegetation degradation in the eastern region of Isfahan using the Lada method, Rangeland and Watershed Management Journal. Iranian Journal of Natural Resources, 67(2), 252-233.
Rashtian, A., 2014. Investigation of the effect of rural dirt road on vegetation cover and plant diversity of central steppe rangelands of Iran (Case study: Aliabad Pishkuh rangelands of Yazd province). Journal of Plant Ecology. 3(6), 57-68 Pp.
Riahifar, N. 2010. The effects of forest roads on soil properties, roadside vegetation diversity andregeneration (Case study: District 5 Part 2 Neka Zalem Roud). Sari Agricultural Sciences and NaturalResources Universitry. Sari, Iran. 94.
Riyazi, B., Khorasani, N., Karami, M. and Hoshiardel, B., 2006. Investigation of the effects of road and rail transportation on wildlife and providing the necessary guidelines. Environmental Science and Technology. 8, 53- 60.
Setayesh, B. and Jahandideh, M., 2017. Environmental effects of roads on wildlife and habitats of protected areas of Isfahan province .
International Conference on Sustainable Development and Urban Development.23and 24 December. Isfahan, Iran.1 - 10.
Shaofeng, Y., Jianchun, X. and Lixia, Y., 2006. The impact of Dunhuang railway construction on land desertification, Geographical Sciences. 99-104.
Spooner, P. G. andSmallbone, L., 2009. Effects of road age on the structure of roadside vegetation in south-eastern Australia, Agriculture. Ecosystems & Environment. 57-64.
Tajamolian, M., Sodaeizadeh, H., Mosleh Arani, A., Rad, M. and Hakimzadeh, M., 2020. The effect of different habitat conditions on changes in amino acids and mineral salts in Rames plant. Journal of Ecophysiology Plant of the. 12(42), 211-199.
Tajamolian, M., Sodaeizadeh, H., Mosleh Arani, A., Rad, M. and Hakimzadeh, M., 2019.Some biochemical changes of two plant species of Rames and black hawthorn, in soil salinity conditions of Playa and Arg. Journal of Desert Management. 14, 14-1.
Takahashi , K. andMiyajima, Y., 2010. Effects of roads on alpine and subalpine plant species distribution along an altitudinal gradient on Mount Norikura, central Japan. 9-741.
Vassali, F., Varasteh Moradi, H. and Salman Mahini, A., 2016. A review of the effects of roads on wildlife movements. 1-13.
Wierzbicka, M., Bemowska-Kałabun, O. and Gworek, B., 2015. Multidimensional evaluation of soil pollution from railway tracks. Ecotoxicology. 1-18.
Yousefi, S., Moradi, H., Boll, J. and Schönbrodt-Stitt, S., 2016. Effects of road construction on soil degradation and nutrient transport in Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests. Geoderma. 284, 103-112.
Zare chahooki, M. and Sanaii, A., 2018. Payment for ecosystem services, an economic tool for the protection of natural resources. Journal of Strategic Research in Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 123-134.
Zhang, H., Pu, H., Schonfeld, P., Song,T., Li, W., Wangd, Y., Peng, X. and Huf, J., 2020. Multi-objective railway alignment optimization considering costs and environmental impacts. Applied Soft Computing Journal. 1-18.