Estimation of gasoline loss from evaporation in different seasons of the year in Tehran gas stations

Document Type : Original Article

Authors

1 Department of Environment Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Technologies, Research Institute of Environmental Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Volatile organic compounds such as gasoline vapors have adverse effects on the environment. In the metropolis of Tehran, gasoline is considered a toxic and dangerous pollutant. One of the most important sources of gasoline vapor emissions in the environment is storage tanks for petroleum products, operational processes, and the number of emptying and loading of storage tanks and gasoline sales activities at gas stations.
Material and methods: To calculate the emission of gasoline vapors from storage tanks of petroleum products in gasoline supply channels, the TANKS 4.09 software was used. Data such as physical characteristics of the reservoir (dimensions), number of loading times of reservoirs, spatial characteristics of reservoirs (climatic parameters), specifications of petroleum products stored in the reservoir, etc. were entered into the software for 22 districts of Tehran.
Results and discussion: According to the outputs, the emission of gasoline vapors from 412 tanks installed in 148 gas stations located in 22 districts of Tehran was about 7702356 liters per year. About 56.78% of it is released in the warmer 6 months and about 43.21% in the colder 6 months of the year. In the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons, about 27.06%, 29.56%, 22.63%, and 20.73% gasoline vapors are released into the environment. Emissions occurred more in 6 months of the year, with most of the emissions of gasoline vapors being from mid-May to mid-November. By comparing the percentage of vapor emission with the percentage of the number of loading times, percentage of operating capacity, number of tanks, and percentage of gas stations in Tehran, it can be concluded that effective factors in increasing gasoline vapor emission are a high number of loading times, high maximum operating capacity, number of tanks, and low number of gas stations. The highest emissions are related to regions 4, 2, and 15, respectively, which have the highest statistics in these cases according to surveys and classification based on maximum gasoline sales, number of loading times, maximum operating capacity, and number of tanks.
Conclusion: Considering the number of gasoline sales (about 4219217500 liters) and the amount of waste and emissions of gasoline vapors (7702356 liters per year), it can be concluded that the number of gasoline products consumed in 1397 in Tehran was about 4226919856 liters.

Keywords


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