Estimation of gasoline loss from evaporation in different seasons of the year in Tehran gas stations

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Environment Engineering, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Environmental Technologies, Research Institute of Environmental Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran


Introduction: Volatile organic compounds such as gasoline vapors have adverse effects on the environment. In the metropolis of Tehran, gasoline is considered a toxic and dangerous pollutant. One of the most important sources of gasoline vapor emissions in the environment is storage tanks for petroleum products, operational processes, and the number of emptying and loading of storage tanks and gasoline sales activities at gas stations.
Material and methods: To calculate the emission of gasoline vapors from storage tanks of petroleum products in gasoline supply channels, the TANKS 4.09 software was used. Data such as physical characteristics of the reservoir (dimensions), number of loading times of reservoirs, spatial characteristics of reservoirs (climatic parameters), specifications of petroleum products stored in the reservoir, etc. were entered into the software for 22 districts of Tehran.
Results and discussion: According to the outputs, the emission of gasoline vapors from 412 tanks installed in 148 gas stations located in 22 districts of Tehran was about 7702356 liters per year. About 56.78% of it is released in the warmer 6 months and about 43.21% in the colder 6 months of the year. In the spring, summer, autumn, and winter seasons, about 27.06%, 29.56%, 22.63%, and 20.73% gasoline vapors are released into the environment. Emissions occurred more in 6 months of the year, with most of the emissions of gasoline vapors being from mid-May to mid-November. By comparing the percentage of vapor emission with the percentage of the number of loading times, percentage of operating capacity, number of tanks, and percentage of gas stations in Tehran, it can be concluded that effective factors in increasing gasoline vapor emission are a high number of loading times, high maximum operating capacity, number of tanks, and low number of gas stations. The highest emissions are related to regions 4, 2, and 15, respectively, which have the highest statistics in these cases according to surveys and classification based on maximum gasoline sales, number of loading times, maximum operating capacity, and number of tanks.
Conclusion: Considering the number of gasoline sales (about 4219217500 liters) and the amount of waste and emissions of gasoline vapors (7702356 liters per year), it can be concluded that the number of gasoline products consumed in 1397 in Tehran was about 4226919856 liters.


Burghardt, T.E., Pashkevich, A. and ┼╗akowska, L., 2016. Influence of volatile organic compounds emissions from road marking paints on ground-level ozone formation: case study of krakow, Poland.Transportation Research Procedia.14,714-723 .
Correa, S.M., Arbilla, G., Marques M.R.C. and Oliveira, K.M.P.G., 2012. The impact of BTEX emissions from gas stations into the atmosphere. Atmospheric Pollution Research. 3,163-169.
DOEH, 2003. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government., Available online at:
ERA Environmental Announces New Tanks Emissions Software for the Oil and Gas Industry. 2013. Available online at: www.pollutiononline
Fontes, T., Barros, N. and Manso, M.C., 2016. Human health risk for the population living in the vicinity of urban petrol stations. In: International Conference on Urban Risks. 30 th June -2 th July, CaixaGest, Lisboa p. 615-622.
Huy, L.N. and Oanh, N.T.K., 2020. Emission control for VOCs from gasoline stations and implication on ozone-forming potential. Atmospheric Pollution Research.11, 87-98.
IRIMO, 2018, Iran Meteorological Organization .
Available online at:
Jackson, M.M., 2006. Organic liquids storage tanks volatile organic compounds (VOCS) emissions dispersion and risk assessment in developing countries: the case of Dar-esSalaam City, Tanzania. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment.116, 363–382.
Okonkwo, CH.O.J., Ehileboh, A.D., Nwobodo, E. and Dike, CH.CH., 2016. The effects of acute gasoline vapour inhalation on some haematological indices of albino Wistar rats. Journal of Acute Disease. 5, 123-125.
Swick, D., Jaques, A., Walker, J.C. and Estreicher, H. 2014. Gasoline toxicology: Overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 70, S3-S12.
Mackenzie, J.and Turrentine, J., 2016. Air Pollution: Everything you need to know, how smog, soot, greenhouse gases, and other top air pollutants are affecting the planet and your health. Available online
Maffei, F., Hrelia, P., Angelini, S., Carbone, F., Forti, G.C., Barbieri, A., Sanguinetti, G., Mattioli, S. and Violante, F.S., 2005. Effects of environmental benzene: Micronucleus frequencies and haematological values in traffic police working in an urban area, Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 583, 1-11.
Neghab, M., Hosseinzadeh, K. and Hassanzadeh, J. 2015. Early liver and kidney dysfunction associated with occupational exposure to sub-threshold limit value levels of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in unleaded Petrol, Safety and Health at Work. 6, 312-316.
Nesvacil, D., 2017.Upstream oil and gas emissions calculations: storage tanks, 4C Environmental Conference, 19 th-22 th February, Austin. Available online at:
presentations/Tanks-Wastewater1Nesvacil_ Tanks_UpstreamOG Emissions Inventory Calculations-StorageTanks.pdf
NIOPDC, 2018. National Iranian Oil Products Distribution Company. Available online at:
Owagboriaye, F.O., Dedeke, G.A., Ashidi, J.S., Aladesida, A.A. and Olooto, W.E. 2017. Hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity of gasoline fumes in albino rats, Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 6, 253-259.
Periago, J.F., Zambudio, A.and Prado, C., 1997. Evaluation of environmental levels of aromatic hydrocarbons in gasoline service stations by gas chromatography. Journal of Chromatography A.778, 263-268.
E&P TANK, 2018. Production Tank Emissions Model, E&P TANK Version 3.0, User’s Manual. API PUBLICATION 4697. Available online at:
Sills, L., 2013. Comparison of emission calculation methodologies for the oil and gas industry. oil and gas environmental conference. Available online at:
TankESP, 2018.Tank emissions calculations software tools, breeze, modeling software for EHS professionals. Available online at:
Tohid, L., Sabeti, Z., Sarbakhsh, P., Zoroufchi, KH., Shakerkhatibi, M., Rasoulzadeh, Y., Rahimian, R. and Darvishali, S. 2019. Spatiotemporal variation, ozone formation potential and health risk assessment of ambient air VOCs in an industrialized city in Iran. Atmospheric Pollution Research.10, 556-563.
USEPA, 1999. “User’s Guide to TANKS, Storage tank emissions calculation software version 4.0” emission factor and inventory group emissions, monitoring, and analysis aivision office of air quality planning and standards. Available online at:
Vegh ,G., 2015. Tank emission tracking tools: A comparative analysis, oil & gas environmental conference, ERA Environmental Management Solutions. 3thDec, Montreal, Canada. Available online at:
Weatherspark, 2018. Weather in Tehran Iran, Available online at
Xu, ZH., Huang, X., Nie W., Chi, X., Xu, ZH., Zheng, L., Sun, P. and Ding, A., 2017. Influence of synoptic condition and holiday effects on VOCs and ozone production in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. Atmospheric Environment.168, 112-124.