نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه کشاورزی اکولوژیک، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشگاه گروه کشاورزی اکولوژیک، پژوهشکده علوم محیطی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

 سابقه و هدف:
بومی­ سازی سیستم غذایی به دلیل­ هایی هم­چون فواید اکولوژیک، مزیت ­های اقتصادی و ملاحظات اجتماعی در مسیر کشاورزی پایدار قرار گرفته است. ولی پرسش این است که غذا تا چه اندازه و محدوده­ای می ­تواند به ­صورت بومی تولید شود. بمنظور پاسخ به این پرسش، مفهوم حوزه غذایی راهگشا است. این مفهوم چارچوبی را برای تحلیل میزان تولید غذای بومی در هر مقیاس مشخص فراهم می­ کند. حوزه غذایی، زمینی است که می ­تواند همه یا بخشی از نیاز­های غذایی یک جمعیت را در یک محدوده جغرافیایی تأمین کند. در کشور ما تا کنون مطالعه ­ای در مورد بررسی حوزه ­های غذایی انجام نشده است، از این روی، این پژوهش پیشنهاد­ دهنده الگویی برای بررسی حوزه­ های غذایی است. این پژوهش با رویکرد حرکت در راستای سیستم غذایی پایدار، ضمن شناساندن مفهوم حوزه غذایی، وضعیت تولید و مصرف غذا در حوزه غذایی استان تهران و ظرفیت این استان در تأمین نیاز­های غذایی خویش را بررسی کرده است.
مواد و روش ­ها:
این تحقیق در استان تهران انجام شد. برای محاسبه میزان غذای تولیدی زمین­ های منطقه مورد مطالعه و میزان نیاز غذایی جمعیت مربوطه و مقایسه آن­ ها با یکدیگر از واحدی یکسان به ­نام «معادل گیاهی» استفاده گردید. تولید هر معادل گیاهی در هر منطقه از طریق ضرب سطح زیر­کشت محصول در عملکرد محصول محاسبه شد. میزان نیاز به هر معادل گیاهی در هر منطقه نیز از ضرب جمعیت آن منطقه در وزن معادل گیاهی مورد نیاز یک فرد در یک سال برآورد شد. سپس با فرمول­ های مربوط به خودکفایی، محاسبه گردید که تولید موجود، چند درصد از نیاز­های جمعیت مربوطه را تأمین می­ کند. برای محاسبه خودکفایی از مفهومی به ­نام تولید آستانه استفاده شد، محاسبه تولید آستانه به کمک برنامه ­نویسی و کد نویسی شرطی با نرم ­افزار متلب انجام گردید. برای انجام پژوهش، نرم ­افزار­های اکسل، متلب و جی ­آی اس مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند.
نتایج و بحث:
تبیین الگویی بمنظور بررسی حوزه غذایی با توجه به چالش افزایش جمعیت استان تهران و تأمین امنیت غذایی این استان از مهم­ترین دستاور­های تحقیق حاضر بوده است. در پژوهش حاضر که در مقیاس استانی صورت گرفته است، میزان خودکفایی در تأمین سبد غذایی مطلوب برای جمعیت استان تهران ۲۲ درصد و بیشترین و کمترین میزان خودکفایی در تأمین سبد غذایی مطلوب برای جمعیت هر شهرستان به ­ترتیب در شهرستان پیشوا و شهرستان تهران برآورد شده است. میزان نیاز تأمین ­شده یا خودکفایی در تأمین سبد غذایی مطلوب در استان تهران در محصول­ های معادل سبد غذایی مطلوب به ­ترتیب از بیشترین در ذرت علوفه ­ای با ۱۰۰ درصد خودکفایی، سبزی و صیفی ۷۹، میوه ۵۶، کاه جو ۵۳، کاه گندم ۴۵، دانه جو ۱۶، سبوس گندم ۸، دانه گندم ۵، نباتات علوفه­ ای به­ جز ذرت ۴، کنجاله کلزا 0.1، دانه کلزا 0.06 و در حبوبات، شلتوک، ریشه و تفاله خشک و ملاس چغندرقند، دانه ذرت و کنجاله سویا عدم خودکفایی و وابستگی کامل یعنی صفر درصد برآورد شده است.
نتیجه­ گیری:
نتایج این پژوهش بیان داشت که پتانسیل واقعی استان تهران در تأمین سبد غذایی مطلوب برای جمعیت استان تهران ۲۲ درصد است. هرچند بومی­ سازی مزیت ­هایی دارد، به ­نظر می ­رسد با توجه به مساحت کم و جمعیت بیش از ظرفیت استان تهران و مسئله­ های محیط زیستی پیش رو (کمبود آب و فرسایش خاک)، باید مرز­های حوزه غذایی استان تهران گسترده ­تر و شعاع حوزه غذایی افزایش یابد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

A model to analyze foodsheds and self-sufficiency (case study: Tehran province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Akbarpoor 1
  • Hadi Veisi 2
  • Abdolmajid Mahdavi Damghani 1
  • Mohammadreza Nazari 1

1 Department of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Agroecology, Environmental Sciences Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University,Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Localization of the food system has become in line with sustainable agriculture for many reasons including ecological advantages, economic benefits, and social considerations. Yet the question is that to what extent food can be locally produced. To answer this question, the concept of foodshed can be considered. The concept provides a framework for analyzing local food production at any scale. The foodshed is a land that can supply all or parts of a given population's nutritional needs within a given geographical area. So far, no foodshed study has been conducted in Iran, so this study proposed a model to study foodsheds. By taking a sustainable food system into account, the current research examined the concept of foodshed, the status of food production and consumption in Tehran Province, and the capacity of this province to meet its nutritional needs.
Material and methods:
The model was used in Tehran Province using a unit named "plant equivalent" to calculate and compare the amount of food produced in the study area and the nutritional requirement of the province’s population. Production of each crop (based on the plant equivalent unit) in each region was calculated by multiplying the crop cultivation land area in the crop yield. The amount of need for each plant equivalent unit in each region was calculated by multiplying the population of that area in the weight of food that is needed of a person in a year. Then, using self-sufficiency formulas, we estimated how much of the population's needs are being supported by the existing production. To calculate self-sufficiency, a concept known as threshold production was used. Calculation of threshold production was done with Matlab using conditional programming and coding. Excel, Matlab, and GIS were used in this research.
Results and discussion:
One of the most important achievements of the present study was the foodshed assessment of Tehran Province considering its increasing population and providing food security in this province. In the present study, which was carried out on a provincial scale, self-sufficiency in providing the desired food basket for the population of Tehran Province was 22% and the highest and lowest self-sufficiency was estimated in Pishva and Tehran counties, respectively. Self-sufficiency percent in producing crops to provide the desired food basket in Tehran Province was higher in fodder corn (100%) (self-sufficient), vegetables (79%), fruits (56%), barley straw (53%), wheat straw (45%), barley grain (16%), wheat bran (8%), wheat grain (5%), forage crops except corn (4%), rapeseed meal (0/1%), rapeseed (0/06%), respectively. However, in legumes, rice hull, root, pulp, and molasses of sugar beet, corn, and soybean meal self-sufficiency percent was estimated zero percent, meaning non-self-sufficient or total dependence.
Conclusion:
The results of this study indicated that the percentage of foodshed self-sufficiency in providing the desired food basket for the population of Tehran Province was 22%. Although localization has benefits, it seems that considering the small area and the overcapacity population of Tehran Province and the environmental issues (water scarcity and soil erosion), the boundaries of Tehran Province foodshed should be broadened and the foodshed radius must be increased.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Consumption
  • economy
  • Food basket
  • Food Security
  • Production
  • Sustainable agriculture

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