نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه جغرافیای انسانی و آمایش، دانشکده علوم زمین، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 مرکز مطالعات سنجش از دور و GIS، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
از جمله پیامدهای عمده شهرنشینی شتابان ، گسترش مکانی - فضایی شهر­ها و خورندگی روستاها و زمین­ های پیرامونی آن­هاست که در کلانشهرها نمود بسیاری داشته است.خزش و گسترش ناموزون کلانشهر تهران به نواحی پیرامونی، منجر به بروز نابسامانی و عدم تعادل در عرصه ­های اجتماعی، اقتصادی و سازمان فضایی روستاهای پیرامونی شده است.در دهه ­های اخیر آنالیز رشد شهری از منظر­های گوناگونی آغاز شد .این پدیده درایران در نیم قرن اخیر با برجستگی زیادی همراه بوده است. و در آغاز در مادر شهر­ها و شهرهای بزرگ اتفاق افتاد ولی به تدریج بر اثر سیاست­ های تمرکز گرایانه سکونتگاهی به شهرهای متوسط و میانی نیز انتقال یافته است. در ناحیه مورد مطالعه در سه دهه اخیر رشد شتابانی در گسترش سطح داشته است و سبب بروز مسایل بسیار محیط زیستی و تغییر­های سریع در عملکرد اقتصادی روستاها و تغییر منبع­ های طبیعی ارزشمند شده است. از این­رو این تحقیق در نظر دارد با واکاوی و تحلیل دقیق پدیده خزش نحوه و میزان تغییر­های کاربری زمین­ ها و پوشش زمین در ناحیه مورد مطالعه را بررسی و با بیان راه حل­های علمی اثر­های زیان بار آن را کاهش دهد.
مواد و روش ها:
برای آنالیز دقیق اثر­های پدیده خزش از روش توصیفی و تحلیلی استفاده شد. در این روش بعد از گردآوری داده ­ها شامل تصاویر ماهواره­ ای لندست با سنجنده ­های TM و ETM و OLI و پس از تفسیر بصری تصاویر ماهواره­ای به لحاظ عاری بودن از خطاهای راه راه شدگی، لکه­های ابر با استفاده از تکنیک­های سنجش از دور و سیستم ­های اطلاعات مکانی روند تغییر­های کاربری زمین­ ها و پوشش زمین در سال‌های ۱۹۸۶ ، ۲۰۰۲، ۲۰۱۸ میلادی به تفکیک و در چهار کاربری، زمین شهری و انسان ساخت زمین­ های جنگلی مرتع­ ها  و راهآغاز گردید.پس از آن عملیات طبقه بندی نظارت شده با الگوریتم SVM ، آشکار سازی و تعیین الگوی خزش در ناحیه مورد مطالعه انجام شد.
نتایج و بحث:
محاسبات انجام شده گویای آن­ست که در محور تهران – پردیس - دماوند بر اثر رشد خزنده به شکل گسسته و در برخی نقاط پیوسته بیش­ترین تغییرات  به لحاظ افزایش ، مربوط به کاربری زمین­ های شهری و انسان ساخت 9.06 درصد و  نیز راه ۱ درصد می‌باشد که این روند رو به افزایش سبب کاهش دو پوشش مراتع و زمین­ های جنگلی بترتیب به میزان9.07 و0.1 درصد شده است. پس از عملیات میدانی و برداشت عوارض نمونه با گیرنده‌های GPS دو فرکانسه و معرفی آن به نرم افزار ، طبقه بندی عوارض با روش ماشین‌های بردار پشتیبانبا  میانگین دقت کلی 96.62% و میانگین ضریب کاپای  85.33% انجام شد. بیشترین تغییر­ها مربوط به کاربری‌های زمین شهری و انسان ساخت و راه بوده که در ناحیه مورد مطالعه بیشتر زمین­ های جنگلی تبدیل به شهرک‌های صنعتی و ویلاهای تفریحی شده است.این موضوع منجر به افزایش مهاجرت از روستا­ها به پیرامون کلانشهر تهران شده و بدنبال آن نیاز به زمین ­های شهری و در نهایت شکنندگی و ناپایداری منابع محیط زیست صورت گرفته است. در محور تهران – پردیس - دماوند تغییر­های یاد شده توسط عامل­ها و نیروهای مختلف و در جریان گسترش فضایی ناموزون آن صورت گرفته است.
نتیجه ­گیری:
در بررسی مربوط به تحولات فضایی و تغییر­های کاربری زمین­ ها و پوشش زمین توجه به این مطلب که کدام کاربری به آرامی و کدام کاربری با سرعت بیشتری تغییر می­ کند از اهمیت بالایی برخوردار است.در این تحقیق نمایان شد که در مورد بررسی زمین­ های جنگلی نسبت به دیگر زمین­ ها بیشترین میزان تغییر را داشته ­اند. بنابراین اگر برنامه ریزی دقیق و سیاست گذاری­ های لازم و نظارت مستمر برای جلوگیری از این روند صورت نگیرد آثار زیان بار و جبران ناپذیر محیط زیستی در پی خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of urban sprawl on land use change in the peripheral villages of Tehran metropolis (case study: Tehran-Damavand axis)

نویسندگان [English]

  • ِAshkan Mohammadi 1
  • Naser Shafiei Sabet 1
  • Alireza Shakiba 2

1 Department of Geography, Faculty of Earth Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

2 Center for Remote Sensing and GIS Studies, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
One of the major implications of accelerated urbanization is the spatial expansion of urban sprawl and the corrosive of villages and peripheral lands that have been numerous in metropolitan areas. The irregular sprawl and extension of the Tehran metropolis into surrounding areas have led to disturbances and imbalances in the social, economic, and spatial organization of peripheral villages. In recent decades, urban growth analysis has started from a variety of perspectives. Over the past half century this phenomenon has been prominent in Iran. It originally took place in metropolises and large cities, but gradually moved to middle cities due to the centralized policies of the settlement .The study area has been expanding rapidly in the last three decades and has caused many environmental problems and rapid changes in the economic performance of villages and the transformation of valuable natural resources. Therefore, this research intends to investigate the manner and extent of land use changes in the study area by analyzing and accurately analyzing the phenomenon of creep and reducing the adverse effects by providing scientific solutions. Therefore, this research is intended by look up and accurate analysis of the sprawl phenomenon, study the method and extent of land use change in the study area and reduces its adverse effects by providing scientific solutions.
Material and methods:
For accurate analysis of the effects of sprawl phenomena, descriptive and analytical methods have been used. In this method, after collecting data contains Land sat satellite images with TM, ETM and OLI sensors and after visual interpretation of satellite images due to the absence of stroke errors, cloud spots by using remote sensing techniques and spatial information systems, the land use change process began in 1986, 2002, 2018, and divided into four residential and non-residential construction, vegetation, rangelands and roads. After that, the supervised classification operation was monitored by the SVM algorithm and the detection and determination of the sprawl pattern in the study area.
Results and discussion:
The calculations indicate that in the region of Tehran -Damavand, due to the crawling growth in discrete form and in some points continuous, the most changes in terms of increase is related to the use of residential construction 9.69% and the use of the road 1%, that this growing trend has reduced the use of pasture and vegetation by about 9.07% and 0.1%, respectively. After field operation and harvesting of samples with two-frequency GPS receivers and introducing it to the software, the classification of complications was performed by support vector machines with a mean total accuracy of 62.69% and a mean Kappa coefficient of 85.33%. Most changes were related to residential and non-residential classes and roads and in the study area, most vegetation coverings and agricultural land became industrial estates and recreational villas. This led to an increase the migration from villages to Tehran's metropolis, followed by the need for urban landscapes and finally fragility and instability of environmental resources. In Tehran- Damavand axis, these changes have been made by various factors and forces during its uneven spatial expansion.
Conclusion:
In the study of spatial and land use changes, it is important to pay attention to which side effects are slowly changing and which side effects change more quickly. In this research, it was revealed that the study of vegetation compared to other lands had the greatest change. Therefore, if there is no precise planning and policies and continuous monitoring to prevent this trend, there will be harmful and irreparable environmental impacts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • urban sprawl
  • Land use change
  • Environment
  • Rural settlements
  • Tehran metropolis

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