نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مدیریت مناطق خشک و بیابانی، دانشکده منابع طبیعی و کویرشناسی، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

2 گروه زیست شناسی، پردیس علوم، دانشگاه یزد، یزد، ایران

3 بخش تحقیق و توسعه، مجتمع طلای موته، میمه، اصفهان، ایران

10.52547/envs.2021.1018

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: برخی از فرایندهای صنعتی، معدن­ کاری و استفاده از کودهای شیمیایی و قارچ کش­ ها در کشاورزی امروزی، منجر به رها سازی فلزهای سنگین و همچنین افزایش شوری خاک و آب­ ها می ­شوند به ­گونه ­ای که افزایش سطح جهانی آلودگی به فلزها روند نگران­ کننده ­ای بـه خود گرفته است. از طرفی وجود یک بیلیون هکتار زمین­ های شور در سراسر کره زمین که تنها با پالایش فیزیکی، شیمیایی و زیستی قابل استفاده در کشاورزی می ­باشند، تهدیدی برای امنیت غذایی محسوب می­ شوند. وجود معدن­ های بسیار در دنیا وایران و در نتیجه فرسایش خاک و انتشار غبار از سدهای باطله موضوعی نگران ­کننده است. پتانسیل سیانوباکترها در ایجاد پوشش بیولوژیک خاک، جذب فلزهای سنگین و شوری خاک­ها نسبت به روش ­های فیزیک‌وشیمیایی رایج، از جنبه کاربردی و اقتصادی بودن در حال بررسی می ­باشد.
مواد و روش ­ها: در کارخانه طلای موته در نتیجه عملیات استخراج طلا به ­وسیله سیانوراسیون، روزانه پساب و رسوب خاک باطله به­ صورت گسترده‌ای حاصل می‌شود. در مهرماه 97 جمع ­آوری نمونه­ های خاک باطله از معدن طلا انجام شد. نمونه ­های خاک باطله معدن جهت شناسایی و رشد ریزجلبک ­ها، در محیط کشت اختصاصی جلبک ­ها کشت داده شد. قبل و بعد از قرارگیری 5 گرم خاک باطله معدن در معرض 5/0 گرم زیست توده سیانوباکتری ­ها، عناصر سدیم، پتاسیم و فلزهای سنگین سرب و کادمیوم خاک باطله اندازه­گیری شد و داده ­ها مورد آنالیز آماری قرار گرفت.
نتایج و بحث: پس از کشت خاک معدن، سیانوباکترهای Oscillatoria tenuis C.Agardh ex Gomont ،tenue Gomont Phormidium، Lyngbya aestuarii Liebman ex Gomont و جلبک سبزScenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing شناسایی شدند. نتایج کشت سیانوباکتری­ های رشته ­ای روی خاک­ های باطله معدن طلا نشان می­ دهد که این ریزموجودات فتوسنتز کننده می ­توانند به راحتی روی خاک­ های باطله آلوده معدن رشد کنند و پوشش بیولوژیک سطحی قابل ملاحظه ­ای را ایجاد کنند. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که O. tenuis، عنصر سدیم را به ­طور معنی ­داری کاهش داده است و P. tenue بیشترین میزان جذب سرب را داشته است و احتمالا با خالص کردن این دو گونه و استفاده جهت رشد روی خاک باطله معدن طلای موته می ­توان معدن را از شوری و عنصرهای سنگین به ­مقدار زیادی پاک سازی و همچنین از فرسایش خاک و انتشار غبار از سد­های باطله جلوگیری نمود.
نتیجه ­گیری: با توجه به وجود تعداد فراوان معدن­ های مختلف طلا در دنیا و ایران، استحصال این فلز گران­بها به ­طور وسیعی با استفاده از سیانور صورت گرفته که به ­دلیل سمیت بالا دارای اثرهای سوء محیط زیستی زیادی می­ باشد. انتشار غبار سیانور از سد باطله می­ تواند سلامتی موجودات زنده نزدیک به آن از جمله کارگران معدن، گیاهان و حتی ریزجلبک­ های خاک­زی را تحت تأثیر قرار دهد. با زیست پالایی1 خاک معدن ­ها می‌توان فرایند احیای زیستی را با سرعت بیشتری انجام داد. نتایج حاصل از این تحقیق نشان می­ دهد که سیانوباکتری­ ها، به ویژه گونه Phormidium tenue، سیانوباکتر مقاوم معدن طلای موته پوشش بیولوژیکی سطحی قابل ملاحظه‌ای را روی خاک باطله ایجاد می­ کنند و بدین صورت از فرسایش خاک معدن جلوگیری می ­کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Using Mouteh Goldmine soil’s cyanobacteria for bioremediation of tailing dam soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • hamid Sodaeizade 1
  • fariba hokmollahi 1
  • amir hossein nateghi 2
  • Manouchehr Mohammadi 3

1 Department of Arid Land and Desert Management, Faculty of Natural Resourses, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

3 Research and Development Division, Mouteh Gold Complex, Meymeh, Isfehan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Natural and human activities lead to soil degradation and soil salinization. In the last two centuries, world metal pollution level has increased extremely. The presence of some heavy metals in aquatic ecosystems is a constant threat to the health of human societies. The decrease of farmlands threatens food security. There are approximately one billion ha salt-affected soils all over of world, which can be utilizable after chemical, physical and biological remediation. Many mines in the world and also in Iran exist and as a result, soil erosion and dust release from waste dams is a matter of concern. Bioremediation using biological agents to detoxify and degradation of environmental pollutants provides a suitable alternative method for substitution of current heavy metals removal strategies..
Material and methods: As a result of extraction operations by cyanidation in Mouteh gold mining complex, wastewater and waste soil sediment are widely achieved. In this study soil samples were collected from Mouteh Goldmine tailing dam soil in September 2018. The collected soil samples were cultured in BG11 medium and incubated for microalgae identification and biomass production. Also, 5 g soil was inoculated with 0.5 g biomass of cyanobacteria and the physicochemical characteristics of the soil including pH, Na, K, Pb, and Cd, before and after the inoculation of soil with cyanobacteria were determined.
Results and discussion: In this study, cyanobacteria Phormidium tenue Gomont, Osillatoria tenuis C.Agardh ex Gomont, Lyngbya aestuarii Liebman ex Gomont and the green alga, Scenedesmus obliquus (Turpin) Kützing were identified. Culture results of filamentous cyanobacteria on goldmine tailing dam soil showed that cyanobacteria grew easily and produced a significant surface crust. The results of the physical analysis of the soil samples showed that O. tenuis decreased Na as a salinity element, and P. tenue absorbed high amounts of Pb as a heavy metal pollution element. Mouteh Goldmine soil cyanobacteria, Osillatoria tenuis and Phormidium tenue, could play a role in mine recovery from salinity and heavy metals and in mine tailing dam soil bioremediation. They can also prevent soil erosion and dust release from waste dams.
 Conclusion: Dust release from waste dams can affect the health of living organisms like mining workers, plants, and even soil microalgae that are close to the mine. Cyanobacteria create biological soil crust and the results of this research showed that cyanobacteria, especially Phormidium tenue species produced a bio-crust that prevent soil erosion.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Phormidium
  • Heavy Metal
  • Bioremediation
  • Mouteh Goldmine
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