نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مرتعداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

2 گروه جنگلداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

3 گروه آبخیزداری، دانشکده منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

4 گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

10.52547/envs.2021.1041

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: فعالیت ­های معدن کاری موجب آسیب به محیط زیست در سراسر دنیا شده است. باطله­ های معدنی متروک حاصل از فعالیت­ های معدنک اری به ­دلیل شرایط نامناسب و همراه داشتن طیف وسیعی از فلزهای سنگین، موجب محدودیت رشد گیاهان می­ شوند. شناسایی گیاهان حاضر در محیط­ های معدنی و بررسی ویژگی­ های جوانه­ زنی بذر آن­ها به ­منظور استفاده از این گیاهان در احیاء پوشش گیاهی اهمیت دارد. در این تحقیق، ویژگی­ های جوانه­ زنی بذر گیاه افسنطین (Artemisia absinthium)، ازمک (Lepidium draba) و خارمریم (Silybum marianum) که در باطله­ های معدنی زغال ­سنگ در استان مازندران رویش دارند در غلظت­ های مختلف مس، سرب و کادمیوم بررسی شد.
مواد و روش­ ها: بذرها از توده ­های گیاهی مستقر در باطله ­های زغال سنگ در طی دو سال جمع ­آوری شدند. آزمایش به ­صورت طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. محلول سولفات مس و نیترات سرب در غلظت ­های صفر (شاهد)، 50، 100، 200 و 300 میلی­گرم در لیتر و نیترات کادمیوم در غلظت­ های صفر (شاهد)، 5، 10، 20 و 30 میلی­ گرم در لیتر به­ عنوان تیمار انتخاب شدند. برای هر تکرار تعداد 20 بذر روی یک لایه کاغذ صافی در پتری­دیش قرار داده شد. سپس تیمارها اعمال و در ژرمیناتور با کنترل دما، نور و رطوبت قرار داده شدند. شمارش تعداد بذور جوانه­ زده در هر پتری­دیش به ­صورت روزانه و تا ثابت شدن جوانه ­زنی ادامه یافت. در پایان آزمایش ویژگی­ های درصد جوانه ­زنی، سرعت جوانه ­زنی، ضریب آلومتری (نسبت طول ریشه ­چه به ساقه ­چه)، سنجه بنیه بذر، درصد سمیت برای ریشه ­چه و سنجه تحمل بذر اندازه ­گیری شدند.
نتایج و بحث: نتایج نشان داد که افزایش غلظت مس، سرب و کادمیوم به ­طور معنی ­داری (05/0≥ p) بر ویژگی­ های جوانه ­زنی بذر گیاهان اثر داشت. بذر گونه S. marianum در تیمار مس و سرب، گونه A. absinthium در پاسخ به سرب و گونه L. draba تحت تنش کادمیوم درصد و سرعت جوانه­ زنی بالاتری داشتند. شدیدترین کاهش درصد جوانه ­زنی در غلظت ­های بالای کادمیوم برای A. absinthium مشاهده شد. با افزایش غلظت عناصر، کاهش معنی­دار در درصد و سرعت جوانه­ زنی برای A. absinthium زودتر از دو گونه دیگر مشاهده شد. مقادیر کم غلظت فلزها موجب کاهش رشد ریشه­ چه و ساقه­ چه در هر سه گیاه شد و S. marianum دارای بیشترین طول ریشه ­چه و ساقه­ چه در تمامی غلظت­ های اعمال شده فلزها بود. مس نسبت به سرب و کادمیوم کاهش بنیه بذر بیشتری را سبب شد. بذر گونه L. draba نسبت به سمیت کادمیوم و گونه S. marianum نسبت به سمیت سرب و مس سنجه تحمل بذر بالاتری داشتند. در همه تیمارها با افزایش غلظت، میزان سمیت گیاهی افزایش یافت. کمترین میزان سمیت گیاهی در تنش مس و سرب برای S. marianum و در کادمیوم برای L. draba مشاهده شد. درصد سمیت مس و کادمیوم بویژه در غلظت­ های بالا برای بذر گونه A. absinthium بیشتر بود. با توجه به اعمال غلظت­ های مشابه برای مس و سرب، همه گونه ­ها در تنش مس با محدودیت بیشتری همراه بوده ­اند. غلظت­ های پایین­تر کادمیوم تا حدی برای گیاهان قابل تحمل بوده اما به­ طور کلی بیشترین اثر بازدارندگی را بر گونه ­ها و بویژه گونه A. absinthium داشت.
نتیجه­ گیری: با توجه به نتایج، پاسخ گیاهان به این تنش­ ها بر حسب نوع گونه، نوع فلز و غلظت آن­ها متفاوت بوده است. هر سه گونه در غلظت ­های بالای فلزهای سنگین توانایی جوانه ­زنی داشتند. حضور این گونه­ ها در باطله ­های زغال­ سنگ و توانایی جوانه ­زنی آن­ها در غلظت­ های بالای فلزهای سنگین موجب می­ شود تا بتوان این گیاهان را در برنامه ­های احیایی آینده و گیاه ­پالایی به کار گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Seed germination of plants grown in coal mine wastes in response to copper, lead, and cadmium stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nateq Lashkari Sanami 1
  • Jamshid Ghorbani 1
  • Seyed Mohammad Hodjati 2
  • Ghorban Vahabzadeh Kebria 3
  • Babak Motesharezadeh 4

1 Department of Range Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

2 Department of Forestry, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

3 Department of Watershed Management, Faculty of Natural Resources, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources UniversityT Sari, Iran

4 Department of Soil Science Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Karaj, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction: Mining activities causes substantial damage to the environment worldwide. Abandoned mine wastes from mining activities limit the growth of plants due to unfavorable conditions and the concentration of a wide range of heavy metals. Identifying plant species growing on mine waste and assessing their seed germinations are important for vegetation restoration on mining areas. This study aimed at assessing the germination characteristics of Artemisia absinthium, Lepidium draba, and Silybum marianum naturally growing on coal mine wastes in Mazandaran Province under different concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd).
Material and methods: Seeds were collected from plants growing in coal wastes during 2 years. Completely randomized design was conducted with three replicates. Treatments were CuSO4 and Pb(NO3)2 at 0 (control), 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/L, and Cd(NO3)2 at 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, and 30 mg/L. In each replicate 20 seeds were placed in a Petri dish containing a layer of filter paper. Then treatments were applied and Petri dishes were taken to a germinator under controlled temperature, moisture, and light. Germinated seeds were counted daily and then germination percentage, germination rate, allometric coefficient, seed vigor index, phytotoxicity percentage and seed tolerance index were calculated.
Results and discussion: The results showed that increasing the concentration of lead, copper, and cadmium significantly affected the seed germination of studied plants. S. marianum had better germination percentage and rate in lead, and copper while germination of A. absinthium, L. draba, was better in cadmium, and copper, respectively. The greatest reduction in germination percentage was found for A. absinthium in 20 and 30 mg/L Cd. As the concentration of metals increased, significant reduction in germination percentage and rate for A. absinthium started in lower concentrations than other species. Root and shoot length of all species was significantly reduced even in low concentration of metals and S. marianum had greater root and shoot length under all treatments. Reduction in seed vigor index was greater under Cu than that in Pb and Cd. High tolerance index was found for L. draba in response to  Cd and for S. marianum under the stress of  Pb and  Cu. In all treatments, an increase in metal concentration significantly increased the phytotoxicity index. Under Cu and Pb S. marianum showed the least phytotoxicity index, while the lowest phytotoxicity index was found for L. draba under Cd stress. Cu and Cd in high concentration were more toxic for A. absinthium than that for the other two species. Under similar concentrations of Cu and  Pb, all species showed reduced germination in copper stress. Cd in lower concentrations were tolerable for plants but generally it had the greatest inhibition especially on A. absinthium.
Conclusion: Overall the responses were different regarding the plant species, metal and concentrations. All three species were able to germinate at high concentrations of heavy metals. The presence of these species in coal wastes and their ability to germinate in high concentrations of heavy metals makes it possible to use these plants in future restoration and phytoremediation programs.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy Metal
  • Mine waste
  • Phytoremediation
  • Plant phytotoxicity
  • Seed vigor
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