Malek Rabiei Sadeghabadi; Omid Nouri; Reza Deihimfard
Introduction: Urban landscape, especially urban forest and city trees, usually has vital and various effects on the mental and physical health of humans, environmental embellishment, and mitigating the destructive effect of climatic changes like wind storms and flood control, as well as reduction and ...
Introduction: Urban landscape, especially urban forest and city trees, usually has vital and various effects on the mental and physical health of humans, environmental embellishment, and mitigating the destructive effect of climatic changes like wind storms and flood control, as well as reduction and control of hazardous contaminants. Choosing appropriate plants for urban landscapes is vital to avoid potential financial and environmental losses that may occur if all selection parameters are not taken into account. The determination of plant species assessment indices in urban green space in Tehran does not have any special standard. Therefore, the aim of this study was to make a sustainable green space for Tehran metropolis due to its arid and semi-arid climate, which poses more challenges to choose suitable plant species for green spaces. Material and methods: In our study, the methodology structured a hierarchy consisting of a goal and sub-ordinate attributes of the problem. Other important components of this methodology were a pairwise comparison between various parameters used to quantify value judgments, and the matrix multiplication used to convert level specifi c criteria into a larger decision priority. After grouping plants, selection parameters have been defined for each plant group. Plant species were comparatively graded for each parameter by a group of eight specialists. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) technique and hierarchical cluster analysis have been utilized to find the most adaptable plant species for the area according to the main selection parameters of zone tolerance, urban conditions, esthetics, maintenance, growth characteristics, and specific features. A table was designed in questionnaire format and distributed between 8 respective experts for coefficient value determination and then the coefficient value was obtained by Expert choice software. The dominant plant list of Tehran and the world was prepared, and plants that exist at Tehran botanical garden and had acceptable results were chosen. Scoring the plant species was performed from 0 to 3 with the values of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 being used for the intermediate state. After multiply each factor weight and each species score, the final plant weight was obtained and the proper and relative proper plants weredetected. Because of the importance of climate change, the indices influenced by climate change were determinedby future weather prediction using Larse-wg-5.1 software under the Hadcim3 model that have three scenariosbetween 2011-2030 and 2045-2065. Weight of these indices was multiplied at species scores and then the properand relative proper plants were prioritized and introduced for planting. Results and discussion: Pointed tree species like Ceratonia silique, Gleditsia spp., Ziziphus jujube, Tamarixparviflora, Sophora japonica, Pistacia chinensis, Guercus coccinea, Quercus douglasi, Seltis sp., and Guercusagrifolia were determined as suitable choices for green space planting. Pointed shrub species like Cercis chinensis,Berberis thunbergii, Eleagnus pungens, Ribes sp., Spartium junceum, Punica granatum var.pleniﬂora, Rhusglabra, and Pyracantha coccinea were suitable as well. Conclusion: In general, the results showed that many dominant green space plants were not proper species andthere are more suitable plants that have received less attention. Before introducing new plants to the urban environment,they should be experimented on in a small scale for several years to confirm that they will not change theecology of the whole region through invasion or posing a threat to any local plant species.
shahram Mohammadi; Ali Akbar Matkan; Seyed Hossain Pourali; Babak Mirbagheri; Parvin Ahmadpour
Volume 15, Issue 2 , July 2017, , Pages 141-162
Introduction: According to distribution requirements and the broad distance between production and consumption centres in Iran, linear infrastructure development plays an important role and should be considered as a vital necessity. Routing problems include many factors which are often incompatible with ...
Introduction: According to distribution requirements and the broad distance between production and consumption centres in Iran, linear infrastructure development plays an important role and should be considered as a vital necessity. Routing problems include many factors which are often incompatible with each other and incompatibility amongst parameters causes significant delays in the process of routing. Hence, it is of interest that use of the new utilities in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) to optimize the routing process can resolve the difficulties faced in decision-making steps. Material and methods: This study aims at optimizing oil pipeline routes from wells drilled to the refinery by using different scenarios and to consider is ORness and ANDness. In the beginning preparation stage all necessary spatial data Like, Geology, land cover, slope, Dem, Fault, Main, River, stream which are required to find the optimal route for establishment of oil transmission line have been collected than Standardization and Preparation by using reducing and Increasing linear weighting function. AHP process has been hired in order to find spatial weight of each parameter’s effectiveness in terms of cost of establishment and oil line interaction with its surrounding environment. Ordered weighted average (OWA) method has been applied to integrate spatial data and achieve the result, cost layer. Dijkstra's algorithm has then been used to find the optimal route between the location of wells and refineries. Results and discussion: The results show that with increase in the value of α, the amount of cost, average slope and height of the oil transit route increase. In scenarios with, higher values are given to high-value pixels. While higher order weights are assigned to values with a lower numerical value in the same position. Therefore, the length of the route from the All (AND) scenario to the At least one (OR) scenario decreases. Because the Dijkstra's algorithm is a single-objective algorithm and aims at extracting the path with the least cost. Because at every move, Choose a pixel with the lowest Accumulative cost as the direction of motion and do not pay attention to the length of the route. Conclusion : By comparing the existing route and the paths obtained from the Dijkstra's algorithm in different scenarios based on the factors of length, cost, mean slope and height of the route extracted In Almost All, Most, and Half (WLC) scenarios, are better than the other options in terms of techno-economic and environmental conditions in study area. Other scenarios have produced better results than some of the existing ones in some of the factors. Providing Various Results, With ORness and tradeoff this method has great flexibility in estimating the needs and priority of decision makers in the field of petroleum industry to design optimal transmission lines.
Mohammad Javad Amiri; Abdolrasoul Salman Mahini; Seyed Gholamali Jalali; Seyyed Mohsen Hosseini; Froad Azari Dehkordi
Volume 7, Issue 2 , January 2010
In this research, two methods were utilized for assessing the ecological capability of forestry: the overlay maps systemic and Boolean-Fuzzy Logic (BFL) methods. To assess the ecological capability of forest land, it is essential to deploy precise ecological factors of a forest ecosystem such as its ...
In this research, two methods were utilized for assessing the ecological capability of forestry: the overlay maps systemic and Boolean-Fuzzy Logic (BFL) methods. To assess the ecological capability of forest land, it is essential to deploy precise ecological factors of a forest ecosystem such as its physiography, topography, altitude, slope, soil, bedrock, precipitation, temperature, and natural factors like vegetation density, annual increment, and the special value of plant species. Therefore, overlay methodology and Boolean logic were used to evaluate the ecological capability of sub watersheds Nos. 33 and 34 that cover an area of 32,526 ha near Tonekabon in Mazandaran Province of Iran. Our findings after using the conventional Boolean Model revealed that there are categories 3, 5, 6, and 7 of forest capability in the area, although the category 3 area was dominant. On the other hand, when the same methodology was used but, instead of the Boolean-Logic (BL) the ‘Boolean-Fuzzy-Logic’ (BFL) was deployed and after weighting of parameters by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), the seven complete categories for forest layers have been detected in the Geographic Information System (GIS) layers. These findings can emphasize the improvement of BFL methodology against the conventional BL for assessment of the ecological capability of forests in the northern part of Iran.