somaye arazi; mohammadhosein irannezhadparizi; Ahad sotoudeh; bahman kiani
Background: Landscape of an area consists of uniform parts of that land that have components of patchs, passages and bed of land landscape. Since the density and distribution of vegetation in the landscape of the land of the passage of time is affected by many variables and changes. Variety and uniformity ...
Background: Landscape of an area consists of uniform parts of that land that have components of patchs, passages and bed of land landscape. Since the density and distribution of vegetation in the landscape of the land of the passage of time is affected by many variables and changes. Variety and uniformity of plants studies the effectiveness of the indicators of richness, diversity and uniformity of vegetation from the structure of the landscape.Materials and Methods: In this study, two variables of size and shape of patchs on the structure of the Adoroshk watershed were selected because these two variables are known as important components in the planning of areas for conservation purposes. For this purpose, first the identification and preparation of the map of the structure of the land address of Adoroshk was performed and then the desired map in Arc GIS 10.3 software with suitable image format and ready to enter FRAGSTATS 4.2 software and then two variables of ratio of environment to area and size The patchs in the structure of Adoroshk land were calculated. Data obtained from identification and counting of vegetation in the area, which were the result of linear transect and plot method, were also entered in SPSS software environment and through Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Hill, Brillouin and MacArthur Plant diversity was measured using the Margalf, Mann-Henick index of plant richness in each spot of the habitat. The Pilo, Alatalo and Hip indices were also used to measure species uniformity. The correlation between the variables was determined from Pearson correlation.Results and Discussion: In this study, 60 plant species were identified and counted in 338 plots and the findings of this study indicate a significant relationship between the two physical variables of size and shape of habitat spots and richness. The diversity and uniformity of rangeland plant species in the Adoroshk watershed.Conclusion: The priority of paying attention to circular patchs that have a minimum ratio of environment to area in the design and management of Adoroshk watershed was proven during the planning and protection of vegetation.
Sajjad Bahrami; Ahad Sotoudeh; Naser Jamshidi; Mohammad Reza Elmi
Volume 16, Issue 3 , October 2018, , Pages 1-24
Introduction: Development of various industries, despite providing human welfare, has potential risks for mankind. Due to its extensive operations and activity and also the potential risk for humans and the environment, the petrochemical industry is considered a high-risk industry. The purpose of this ...
Introduction: Development of various industries, despite providing human welfare, has potential risks for mankind. Due to its extensive operations and activity and also the potential risk for humans and the environment, the petrochemical industry is considered a high-risk industry. The purpose of this study was to assess and prioritize the risks resulting from process activities in Kermanshah petrochemical complex using two approaches (i.e., the traditional and fuzzy FMEA method). Material and methods: The present study was an analytical-field research that has been conducted in Kermanshah petrochemical complex for 10 months. In this study, the product lines (urea and ammonia) were investigated and also a team of five experts was formed. In addition, an initial list of the most important risks and hazards in the environmental field was prepared and then, by using Brainstorming and Delphi Technique, the list was corrected. Finally, environmental risk assessment in the form of traditional and fuzzy FMEA methods was evaluated. Results and discussion: According to the results, 38 risks were identified by traditional FMEA. The highest priority risk was related to hydrogen and ammonia gas emissions when the ammonia unit was out of service by RPN number of 491. The lowest priority risk belonged to ammonia effluents by RPN number of 28. Also, the highest risks to air pollution, as well as the causes of the risks were related to defects in the system and connections. The results of input fuzziﬁcation and output FMEA method showed that among the 15 identified risks in the petrochemical complex, the highest number of fuzzy priority in the health section was related to noise pollution (0.75), in the safety section was falling from the heights (0.75), and in the environmental sector for the reduction of ecological resources (0.613). Conclusion: Comparing these two approaches suggest that the traditional FMEA is powerful in the early stages of risk assessment process, and on the other hand, the fuzzy approach is more flexible and user-friendly in the stage of prioritizing the risks.