leila saberpour; Saeid Soufizadeh; Abdolmajid Mahdavi Damghani; Jafar Kambouzia; Ghorban Ghorbani Nasrabad
Introduction: Cotton is one of the most important fiber plants in Iran which needs more production for national fiber sufficiency goal. Its cropping area in Iran is now about 140,000 ha in which 95.3% is irrigated; rainfed cotton is growing only in Khorasan, Golestan and Mazandaran. Planting date and ...
Introduction: Cotton is one of the most important fiber plants in Iran which needs more production for national fiber sufficiency goal. Its cropping area in Iran is now about 140,000 ha in which 95.3% is irrigated; rainfed cotton is growing only in Khorasan, Golestan and Mazandaran. Planting date and nutrition management and their interactions are amongst the most important determinants of crop yield.Material and methods: Field experiment in 2016 in the fields of Cotton Research Center of Golestan province in Hashem Abad split plot factorial in a randomized complete block design was conducted. Treatments include the planting date as the main factor, cultivar (Latif and Golestan) and nitrogen (three levels: desirable, a third desirable and without fertilizer) as sub plots. The first planting date in the traits (TDM, LAI, CGR and RGR) was superior to the second planting date. Among the cultivars, Golestan cultivar showed a better response to Latif cultivar at zero fertilizer level and 160 kg ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer.Results and discussion: TDM variation and LAI of cotton cultivars during the growing season were three stages. The first stage, the phase of presentation, in which the TDM variations continued up to 55 and 61 days after planting and the rate of changes in the LAI, respectively, was 55 and 43 days after planting in the first and second planting dates. TDM accumulation changes up to 109 and 96 days, the LAI was about 88 and 96 days, the RGR was 55 and 61 days, and the CGR was 88 and 96 days after planting in the first and second plantings increased linearly. Maximum RGR and CGR were observed at cultivar Golestan cultivar at zero and 160 kg ha-1 in first planting date.Conclusion: In general, first planting date (29 June) in comparison with the second planting date (12 July) caused higher DM production, LAI, RGR and vegetative growth and Golestan cultivar had better performance than Latif cultivar at 0 and 160 khNha-1. The maximum RGR at these two-fertilizer level in Golestan cultivar was recorded at the first planting date which caused a significant difference for the time reaching maximum LAI.
Amin Gharanjik; Jafar Kambouzia; Saeed Soufizadeh
Introduction: Plants show different morphological and phonological responses to ecological conditions within their tolerable range, which are in fact part of their heredity. These changes have a key role in species survival and ecosystems sustainability. Agricultural ecosystems are very fragile due ...
Introduction: Plants show different morphological and phonological responses to ecological conditions within their tolerable range, which are in fact part of their heredity. These changes have a key role in species survival and ecosystems sustainability. Agricultural ecosystems are very fragile due to the severe limitations of genetic diversity and biodiversity. In an agro-ecological approach, unlike current agriculture, careful consideration of the livelihood stages and other living organisms in the ecosystem is of interest, and so it is attempted to manage production as well as the optimal use of agricultural inputs. Material and methods: In order to study the phonological changes in four bread wheat genotypes (Gonbad, Karim, Koohdasht, Morvarid), at different levels of urea fertilizer application (0, 66, 200 kg/ha), a factorial experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in two crop years of 2014 and 2015 at Agricultural Research Station of Gonbad-e-kavoos. Results and discussion: The results of this study showed that the length of vegetative and reproductive stages in these two years are different, and the effect of urea content on these stages is not the same in different ecological conditions. Therefore, it was concluded that under different temperature and humidity conditions. it is possible to apply fertilizer management, without having a significant effect on the length of the phonological periods. Observations of this experiment showed that the stalking stage is more stable compared to the previous steps, so that the length of this stage was only 0.63 day in two years, and changes in different levels of fertilizer application did not show any significant difference in two years. It seems that the length of this period is less influenced by environmental factors than the other stages of wheat growth and in other words. it is expected to have a higher inheritance. Changes in the pregnancy stage are also relatively similar to the stalking stage. Even though the consumption of 200 kg/ha urea fertilizer slightly increased the change of the slope, in such a way that 68% slope the increase of the span of the period from the treatment until 66 kg/ha, urea fertilizer is changed into 111.9%, but the amount of this increase is only 0.75 day. It can be concluded that although the length of this stage of plant growth is more affected by environmental factors over the pregnancy stage, in general, the amount of this impact is not high. Observations of this study showed that the studied wheat cultivars (whether they are introduced for dry conditions or supplementary irrigation) during the course of their growth reached the stages of emergence of spike, flowering, and seedling 7.5 to 8.5 days later in the second year (pluvious) than the first year (lower rainfall). So that the difference between these two years for the emergence of the spike on average was 8.33 day, for flowering stage 7.72 day, and for the processing stage 7.56 day. Changes in fertilizer use in these three steps were similar in both years. Conclusion: This study is important in management and controlling the population of non-cultivated plant species, pathogens (fungi and bacteria), insects and other species in the amount and sustainability of crop production.
Zohreh Khorasanian; Naghmeh Mobarghaee Dinan; Saeed Soufizadeh; Reihaneh Rasoolzadeh
Introduction: Population growth, traffic jam, and industrial development generate air pollution in metropolises such as Tehran. Regarding the fact that air pollution can cause serious damage to the health of citizens, various studies have been conducted at the national and international levels. Undoubtedly, ...
Introduction: Population growth, traffic jam, and industrial development generate air pollution in metropolises such as Tehran. Regarding the fact that air pollution can cause serious damage to the health of citizens, various studies have been conducted at the national and international levels. Undoubtedly, one of the most important ways to reduce environmental pollution is the use of control programs and measures. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of some plans and programs to reduce the air pollution of a metropolis (Tehran). Material and methods: To determine the annual fluctuations in air pollutants (Carbon Monoxide (CO), Particulate Matter of 10 microns in diameter or smaller (PM10), Ozone (O3), Sulfur Oxides (SOX), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), and Nitrogen Monoxide (NO)), the concentration of these parameters was investigated in Tehran from 2005 to 2012. Pearson correlation analysis and stepwise regression (SAS software) were used to evaluate the relationships between air pollution, number of vehicles and fuel consumption in Tehran. Results and discussion: From 2005 to 2012, the trend of annual changes in CO concentration was decreased. The highest concentration of this pollutant (2006) was 5 mg/l and the lowest concentration (2011) was about 2 mg/l. During the same period, the annual trend of PM10 increased from 100 to140 μg/m3. In these years, the annual trend of ozone decreased from 0.03 mg/l to 0.02 mg/l. Meanwhile, the annual concentration of sulfur dioxide decreased from 0.055 to 0.03 mg/l. Changes in annual NO2 and NO concentration decreased during the mentioned years from l0.07 to 0.2 mg/l and from 0.05 to 0.010 mg/l, respectively. Conclusion: Results show that the trend of annual change in the concentration of pollutants was decreasing for all pollutants (except for suspended particles) from 2005 to 2012. Eliminating eroded cars, and using hybrid and gas-fueled vehicles played an important role in reducing air pollution in Tehran. Also, due to the results of the correlation analysis and the significance of the effect of eroded cars on atmospheric pollutants, the impact of this policy on reducing emissions was significant. The results of stepwise regression analysis from 2005 to 2012 showed that eliminating the eroded cars and replacing them with dual-fuel ones had the most significant effect on reducing carbon monoxide emissions in Tehran.
Fatemeh Rajab Nia; Seyed Hossein Hashemi; Reihaneh Rasoolzadeh; Saeed Soofizadeh
Volume 13, Issue 4 , January 2016, , Pages 37-42
Wastewater from the textile industry is one of the most polluted industrial effluents. Many different methods have been used for treatment of this type of effluents. Since ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent and attacks the double bonds of the dye molecules, it can be efficiently used for treatment of ...
Wastewater from the textile industry is one of the most polluted industrial effluents. Many different methods have been used for treatment of this type of effluents. Since ozone is a powerful oxidizing agent and attacks the double bonds of the dye molecules, it can be efficiently used for treatment of this type of wastewater. The present study aims to determine the optimum running time and pH for removal of pollutants from the effluent. In the present research, experiments were carried out in a 4.2 l reactor with a 1393.431 mg inlet ozone. Colour and COD removal efficiencies were measured at different time periods and at pH values of 5 and 9. Results show that using the ozonation method under the optimum condition of a pH value of 9 and a running time 90 minutes reduced chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 21.6% and colour by 82.56% (Pt-Co scale), 73.63% (at 400 nm wavelength) and 90.76% (at 575 nm wavelength). Since the use of ozone alone to achieve the desired level of treatment is not .cost effective, it is recommended to use this method in combination with other methods
Eskandar Zand; Fatemeh Bena Kashani; Saeid Soufizadeh; Meysam Ebrahimi; Mohammad Minbashi; Fatemeh Dastaran; Maryam Poorbayge; Mohammd Jamali; Azar Maknali; Masoumeh Younesabadi; Reza Deihimfard; Somayyeh Forouzesh
Volume 6, Issue 4 , July 2009
To evaluate the resistance of wild oat (Avena ludoviciana), annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) and littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris spp.) in wheat fields of Fars, Khouzestan, Golestan and Ilam Provinces of Iran to clodinafop-propargyl herbicide from ACCase inhibitors of aryloxyphenoxy propionate classes, ...
To evaluate the resistance of wild oat (Avena ludoviciana), annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) and littleseed canarygrass (Phalaris spp.) in wheat fields of Fars, Khouzestan, Golestan and Ilam Provinces of Iran to clodinafop-propargyl herbicide from ACCase inhibitors of aryloxyphenoxy propionate classes, 6 separate indoor experiments were conducted in the greenhouses of the Department of Weed Research in the Iranian Research Institute for Plant Protection. The experiments were conducted by using 19 populations of wild oat (including 15 questionably resistant populations and 4 susceptible populations), 14 littleseed canarygrass populations (including 10 suspected-resistant populations and 4 susceptible populations) and 9 annual ryegrass populations (including 8 questionably resistant populations and 1 susceptible mass) from Fars Province, 4 populations of wild oat (including 3 questionably resistant populations and 1 susceptible mass) from Lorestan Province, 17 littleseed canarygrass populations (including 16 probably resistant populations and 1 susceptible mass) from Khouzestan Province, and 12 littleseed canarygrass populations (including 11 questionably resistant populations and 1 susceptible mass) from Golestan Province. All the experiments were conducted separately in the form of a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). A pot under no-herbicide application was also included as control. The remaining weeds number and dry weight percentage were calculated 30 days after herbicide application, and were then compared with their relative figures before herbicide application. A mass was recognized resistant only if it retained 80% of its number and 50% of its dry weight, in comparisonto the control. On this basis, 4 resistant and 2 questionably resistant littleseed canarygrass populations, 6 resistant and 3 questionably resistant wild oat populations and 5 resistant and 3 questionably resistant Annual Ryegrass populations were identified in Fars Province. In Ilam Province, 2 resistant wild oat populations were identified. Overall, in this experiment 75 populations including 63 questionably resistant and 12 susceptible populations were evaluated. Amongst the 63 questionably resistant populations (including 37 littleseed canarygrass, 18 wild oat and 8 annual ryegrass populations), 28 totally resistant populations (including 12 littleseed canarygrass, 11 wild oat and 8 annual ryegrass populations) and 10 probably resistant (consisting of 4 littleseed canarygrass populations, 3 wild oat populations and 3 annual ryegrass populations) were detected. In other words, approximately 60% (44% resistant and 16% probably resistant) of all evaluated questionably resistant populations were identified as resistant and probably resistant.
Eskandar Zand; Fatemeh Bena Kashani; Mohammad Ali Baghestani; Azar Maknali; Mehdi Minbashi; Saeid Soufizadeh; Reza Deihimfard
Volume 4, Issue 3 , April 2007
Reza Deihimfard; Eskandar Zand; Houman Liaghati; Saeid Soufizadeh