ramin alivand; Omid Noori; hadi veisi; reza deihim
AbstractIntroduction:Beginning and developing community gardens in city by creating a healthy and intimate atmosphere, it has made people feel refreshed and by increasing social, cultural and political participation It can be helpful in solving people's problems in the region, city and even the country. ...
AbstractIntroduction:Beginning and developing community gardens in city by creating a healthy and intimate atmosphere, it has made people feel refreshed and by increasing social, cultural and political participation It can be helpful in solving people's problems in the region, city and even the country. By creating a community garden, in addition to continuing to maintain the gardens, can also benefit from the services and functions of these gardens. In this research using Network analysis and ranking of indicators and their relationships in the decision-making process.Materials and methods:This research was conducted in Karaj city, based on different criteria and according to the opinion of framework experts to develop Community gardens Provide multi-function and multi-service. to reach this goal, used from the model provided for the services and functions of the community garden which has eight economic, political, social, cultural, ecological, environmental, educational and health dimensions, And with 125 components. In this research, data collection Using a questionnaire Based on ANP decision technique and pairwise comparisons by professionals with at least 15 years of experience which were selected by the snowball method. After calculating the geometric mean of the judgments made the information entered the software. The processing and analysis of the results of this research was done using Excel and Super decision software.Results and discussion:After measurement the weight of the used indicators, the final prioritization for the proposed functions and services was done by the super decisions software. Among the investigated indicators Stability index (2C) with a weight of 0.389 The most important indicator of choosing the services and functions of the community garden and after this index, Acceptability index (3C) with a weight of 0.228 and effectiveness index (1C) with a weight of 0.205 They were ranked next. Based on the calculation with weighted indicators, Among the functions of community garden dimensions The economic dimension of "Using Abandoned Lands", social dimension of "entertainment space", political dimension of "tourism", cultural dimension of "developing garden endowment culture", environmental dimension of "pollution reduction", ecological dimension of "biodiversity", health dimension "healthy body weight", educational dimension of "Environment for promoting agriculture" They got the highest priority.Conclusion:The results of this research can in showing the position of the community garden very useful by people and officials and to justify investment in order to benefit from the services and functions of the community garden. Due to the importance of the community garden, when designing the city, there should be a plan to provide urban green infrastructure. Based on the knowledge of services and functions of these gardens to be considered necessary in accordance with social preferences.
Malek Rabiei Sadeghabadi; Omid Nouri; Reza Deihimfard
Introduction: Urban landscape, especially urban forest and city trees, usually has vital and various effects on the mental and physical health of humans, environmental embellishment, and mitigating the destructive effect of climatic changes like wind storms and flood control, as well as reduction and ...
Introduction: Urban landscape, especially urban forest and city trees, usually has vital and various effects on the mental and physical health of humans, environmental embellishment, and mitigating the destructive effect of climatic changes like wind storms and flood control, as well as reduction and control of hazardous contaminants. Choosing appropriate plants for urban landscapes is vital to avoid potential financial and environmental losses that may occur if all selection parameters are not taken into account. The determination of plant species assessment indices in urban green space in Tehran does not have any special standard. Therefore, the aim of this study was to make a sustainable green space for Tehran metropolis due to its arid and semi-arid climate, which poses more challenges to choose suitable plant species for green spaces. Material and methods: In our study, the methodology structured a hierarchy consisting of a goal and sub-ordinate attributes of the problem. Other important components of this methodology were a pairwise comparison between various parameters used to quantify value judgments, and the matrix multiplication used to convert level specifi c criteria into a larger decision priority. After grouping plants, selection parameters have been defined for each plant group. Plant species were comparatively graded for each parameter by a group of eight specialists. Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) technique and hierarchical cluster analysis have been utilized to find the most adaptable plant species for the area according to the main selection parameters of zone tolerance, urban conditions, esthetics, maintenance, growth characteristics, and specific features. A table was designed in questionnaire format and distributed between 8 respective experts for coefficient value determination and then the coefficient value was obtained by Expert choice software. The dominant plant list of Tehran and the world was prepared, and plants that exist at Tehran botanical garden and had acceptable results were chosen. Scoring the plant species was performed from 0 to 3 with the values of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 being used for the intermediate state. After multiply each factor weight and each species score, the final plant weight was obtained and the proper and relative proper plants weredetected. Because of the importance of climate change, the indices influenced by climate change were determinedby future weather prediction using Larse-wg-5.1 software under the Hadcim3 model that have three scenariosbetween 2011-2030 and 2045-2065. Weight of these indices was multiplied at species scores and then the properand relative proper plants were prioritized and introduced for planting. Results and discussion: Pointed tree species like Ceratonia silique, Gleditsia spp., Ziziphus jujube, Tamarixparviflora, Sophora japonica, Pistacia chinensis, Guercus coccinea, Quercus douglasi, Seltis sp., and Guercusagrifolia were determined as suitable choices for green space planting. Pointed shrub species like Cercis chinensis,Berberis thunbergii, Eleagnus pungens, Ribes sp., Spartium junceum, Punica granatum var.pleniﬂora, Rhusglabra, and Pyracantha coccinea were suitable as well. Conclusion: In general, the results showed that many dominant green space plants were not proper species andthere are more suitable plants that have received less attention. Before introducing new plants to the urban environment,they should be experimented on in a small scale for several years to confirm that they will not change theecology of the whole region through invasion or posing a threat to any local plant species.
Reyhaneh Sadat Ghazi Marashi; Omid Noori; Reza Deihimfard; Amir Salemi
Volume 15, Issue 4 , January 2018, , Pages 113-124
Urbanization and population growth, in addition to its rapid development across the world, has caused a major demand for the food security and the self-sufficiency in terms of food production in many cities. According to the aforementioned circumstances, the activities in the basis of ...
Urbanization and population growth, in addition to its rapid development across the world, has caused a major demand for the food security and the self-sufficiency in terms of food production in many cities. According to the aforementioned circumstances, the activities in the basis of urban agriculture with different traditional methods (e.g. planting on the ground surface with a soil bedding) or the modern ones (e.g. rooftop gardening with hydroponic cultivation methods) have been emerged and numerous studies regarding these methods have been accomplished. Likewise, a large number of farms in the urban areas came into existence worldwide. Nonetheless, there are yet various challenges to develop this type of agriculture. Moreover, only few numbers of studies were carried out to monitor the health and hygiene condition of the food productions grown in such places, especially in terms of air pollutants accumulation. The objective of this research was to study the hygiene of the plants cultivated in urban environment (rooftops and courtyards), and to determine the accumulation rates of pollutants in the eggplant fruit (Solanum Melongena var. depressum (L.)) and bell peppers (Capsicum fruitescens var. grossum (Mill.)).
Materials and methods:
Two types of vegetables; bell pepper and eggplant were cultivated in the rooftop and courtyard of a five story building in the 7th district of Tehran. The seeds were planted on the basis of a completely randomized design system using six times repetitions. Besides, in order to compare the hygiene of these fruits with those of the fruits cultivated in the countryside, similar samples of the same products were used in the farms located in the environs of Varamin and Karaj. Densities of heavy metals such as molybdenum, chrome, copper and manganese ( Mn, Mo, Cr and Cu) included in the fruits of belle pepper and eggplants cultivated in the urban areas of Tehran were compares with their amounts in the fruits cultivated in the farms located outside of the towns. Additionally, the amounts of heavy metals Lead and Cadmium (Cd, Pb) in the samples related to the city of Tehran were compared to the European Union Standards and the Iranian National Standard. The sample digestion was carried out using Microwave, and in order to analyse and measure the results, the device of ICP-MS was used. Data was analysed by the SAS and Microsoft Excel software and the means comparison was done through standard error.
Results and discussion:
The resulted data demonstrate that the densities of heavy metals in the most of the fruits grown in city showed significantly higher numbers in the range of 5% than those of plants grown in countryside, except the contents of chrome in eggplant which is higher in the samples of the farms located in the countryside than those of both urban areas. Moreover, the heavy metal pollutants of copper in both eggplant and bell pepper from the farms located in countryside were higher than the samples of the rooftop. The chrome density in the eggplants cultivated in farmland was 1.56 times more than that of courtyard, and 1.58 times more than that of rooftop. Densities of copper in the eggplant and bell pepper of countryside farm are respectively 1.22 and 1.24 times more than the samples of rooftop. Furthermore, except lead contents (Pb) being observed at three different levels 0.18, 0.63 and 0.14 milligrams per one kilogram of dry weight (mg/kgDW) in some samples, respectively for rooftop eggplants, rooftop bell peppers and bell peppers of courtyard, which showed significant variances to the permissible limits (in the range of 5%), other samples indicated acceptable amounts of lead and cadmium with respect to the European Union Standard and Iranian National Standard (under the limits of 5%).
In general it can be concluded that all the samples cultivated in the urban areas of 7th district of the city of Tehran were healthy in terms of allowable amounts of Cadmium as an heavy metal. These density ratios fully complied with international standards, and were similar to those of the samples cultivated in the countryside. In contrast, most of the aforementioned samples contained the impermissible amounts of lead heavy metal. Likewise, the densities of other heavy metals included in products of urban farms were much higher than those of the city exteriors. As a matter of fact, this difference might be resulted from the effects of heavy traffic flow, geographic position and the unsuitable climate conditions on the air quality of urbanized areas.
Azra Alimousavi; Mohammad reza Hassandokht; Saeid Maharrami Pour; Omid Nouri Roudsari
Volume 3, Issue 11 , April 2006