Fatemeh Kazemiyeh; Asma Eidi; mehdi motalem
IntroductionPlanning for proper waste management and attention to its harmful effects on the environment in any country is one of the most important and necessary principles in order to provide long-term benefits and move towards sustainable development. The overall purpose of this study was to analyze ...
IntroductionPlanning for proper waste management and attention to its harmful effects on the environment in any country is one of the most important and necessary principles in order to provide long-term benefits and move towards sustainable development. The overall purpose of this study was to analyze the barriers to rural waste management (a case study of the central part of Urmia). In order to achieve a comprehensive knowledge of the obstacles, problems and limitations that have led to poor rural waste management in the study area, and this comprehensive understanding of the current situation, pave the way for the adoption of targeted programs to remove barriers and proper rural waste management among the villages.Materials and methodsThe research was applied in terms of purpose and field in terms of data collection.The statistical population of the study included all villagers in the functions of the central part of Urmia city in which rural waste management was performed (N = 136). The questionnaire was the main research tool that was designed using content review and interviews with experts and faculty members of the university and its content validity was confirmed. To evaluate the reliability, 30 questionnaires were completed and the Cronbach's alpha value was 0.91, which indicated the acceptable reliability of the questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and exploratory factor analysis technique.Results and discussionThe results of factor analysis showed that rural waste management barriers in six groups of educational-cultural barriers (variance dimension 18.13), health - environmental (variance dimension 18.06), knowledge (variance dimension 12.53), environmental (variance dimension 10.96) Disposal management (variance dimension 10.24) and equipment (variance dimension 6.92) were classified as 76.84% of the total variance changes related to rural waste management barriers in the study area. They explained. The first rank in prioritizing the items of educational-cultural barriers, the item of lack of culture required for less consumption, in the items of health-environmental barriers, abandonment and disposal of waste by the villagers in the nearest place (in Passages, river routes, roadsides, etc.) and the occurrence of parasitic diseases for the villagers, in the context of knowledge barriers, lack of knowledge and lack of knowledge of villagers about the economic value of reusing agricultural waste, In the disposal factor, the lack of separation plan at the source and as a result of mixing wet, dry and special wastes with each other and in the environmental factor, the presence of insects and rodents and their increase at certain times of the year at the disposal site And until the collection of waste and finally in the items of equipment, the passages were allocated to the shortage and conversion of conversion industries for reuse of agricultural wastes and wastes.ConclusionEmpowering people through awareness and information, education using appropriate tools and appropriate to the special cultural and social conditions in the field of waste management can be helpful and practical and operational. Coherent and purposeful management for waste management and success in improving environmental issues in the study area requires specific methods and strategic plans. Therefore, it is necessary to take the necessary planning and measures in this regard. It is also recommended to use the participation of people and NGOs to separate at the source and to organize informal activities of collection and recycling of materials in recycling programs, while it is necessary for municipalities, organizations and affiliated bodies. Assist the government in providing the facilities and equipment needed for rural waste management.
Fatemeh Kazemiyeh; Asma Eidi
Introduction: Organic farming is one of the sustainable agricultural strategies that relies on natural methods to control pests and diseases and has been prevented from using artificial pesticides and herbicides, chemical fertilizers, hormones, and antibiotics. Given the importance of food security and ...
Introduction: Organic farming is one of the sustainable agricultural strategies that relies on natural methods to control pests and diseases and has been prevented from using artificial pesticides and herbicides, chemical fertilizers, hormones, and antibiotics. Given the importance of food security and the irreparable damage caused by overuse of chemicals in agriculture and human health, the main purpose of this study is to identify and explain the barriers to the development of organic farming. Due to its special geographical location and variety of agricultural products, West Azerbaijan Province has a high capacity in the production of organic products such as grapes, white berries, pomegranates and apples. Although the history of organic farming has long been common in West Azarbaijan Province, unfortunately, this type of agriculture is currently facing many obstacles and problems, so it is important to identify the factors that prevent the use of organic agriculture and should be addressed to solve these problems.Material and methods: The present study was quantitative-qualitative in terms of practical purpose and research paradigm. In the first stage, barriers to the development of organic agriculture were identified by Delphi method. A purposive sampling method was used to collect information. The statistical population of this stage was 25 university professors, experts, and specialists. In the second stage, the data obtained from the agreement of the experts were provided to the experts as a closed questionnaire. The statistical population of the study at this stage included 101 experts from the Agricultural Jihad Organization of Urmia, which due to the limited statistical population was used to collect information with the census method. In order to analyze the data, the exploratory factor analysis technique was used based on the method of analysis to the main components.Results and discussion: The value of KMO for the set of barriers to organic farming development was 0.79. Therefore, the number of samples was suitable for factor analysis. Bartlett's test score was 3072.307, which was significant at the 1% level. Therefore, it can be concluded that the separation of factors was done correctly and the variables of each factor had a high root correlation with each other. According to the research results, the most important barriers to the development of organic agriculture, respectively, included: barriers to information and agricultural knowledge (lack of sufficient knowledge in the production of organic products), motivational and attitude barriers (lack of interest and resistance of farmers in accepting cultivation of organic products), economic barriers (lack of financial support to withstand the damages of the past), technical-managerial and supportive barriers (unfamiliarity with the techniques and methods of cultivation of organic products and lack of a single and specific trustee for organic products), barriers to use (excessive consumption of chemical fertilizers), and extension barriers (farmers' limited participation in extension and educational programs.Conclusion: Agricultural planners should be guided by solutions in the field of facilitating the export of organic agricultural products, supporting farmers in organic farming, and carrying out extension activities to use the existing capacities in the country. Agricultural research must be done on the use of organic and biological fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers. Special attention must be paid to organic agriculture in developing strategic plans for agricultural research and appropriate and separate pricing systems for organic products. Training and extension courses in organic farming for farmers and encouraging them to participate in these classes are also encouraged.