ehsan khodarezaie; Korous Khoshbakht; Hadi Veisi; Mohammad Reza Nazari
IntroductionEnergy use in agriculture has grown faster than other sectors of the global economy. In developing countries, most agricultural systems consume significant amounts of energy to increase production and food security. Energy consumption leads to the emission of greenhouse gases and environmental ...
IntroductionEnergy use in agriculture has grown faster than other sectors of the global economy. In developing countries, most agricultural systems consume significant amounts of energy to increase production and food security. Energy consumption leads to the emission of greenhouse gases and environmental pollutions in the agriculture sector. Besides, the use of fossil fuels in the production process and transfer of inputs emits greenhouse gases, which in turn cause global warming and climate change. Analyzing and good understanding of energy flow and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in agricultural production systems can help to optimize crop management practices thereby reducing environmental problems. Iran's average energy consumption is three times higher than the world average.Groundwater is the main source of agricultural water in arid and semi-arid areas. Electricity used in irrigation pumps consumes a large of energy and emits GHGs. Qazvin plain is one of the most important agricultural plains in Iran, which along with the use of groundwater, has the largest irrigation canal network in the country. Differences in agricultural water supply sources can lead to differences in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions as electricity and other inputs may be affected. Wheat, barley, alfalfa and maize silage are major crops in Qazvin plain. Alfalfa and maize silage need relatively a high irrigation water requirement. This paper evaluates the energy flow and Global Warming Potential (GWP) of alfalfa and maize silage farms with two different water supply sources (well and canal) in Qazvin plain.Materials and MethodsThe data were collected through face-to-face interviews with farmers in the year 2018. Energy indices were estimated based on the analysis of farm inputs and outputs. Global Warming Potential was calculated using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method and SimaPro 8.2 software. GHGs were calculated using the conversion coefficients presented by the IPCC GWP 100 method. Results and DiscussionThe output energy values of maize silage and alfalfa were calculated as 232726, 191812 MJ ha-1 for well water irrigation system and 234167 and 248060 MJ ha-1 for the canal water irrigation, respectively. Results showed higher net energy values for alfalfa (172778 MJ ha-1) and maize silage (167618 MJ ha-1) in canal water irrigation system compared to well water irrigation (131300 MJ ha-1 and 60112 MJ ha-1 for corn silage and alfalfa, respectively) mainly because of the relatively lower input energy. The results showed that the highest and lowest values of input energy were related to alfalfa production with well water irrigation (131700 MJ ha-1) and maize silage with canal water irrigation (66548 MJ ha-1), respectively. Also, the energy use efficiency of maize silage (3.5) and alfalfa (3.3) were higher in canal water irrigation systems compared to well water irrigation systems (2.3 for maize silage and 1.46 for alfalfa). In the well water irrigation systems, GWP was calculated to be 7466.9 kg CO2-eq ha−1 and 7995.7 kg CO2-eq ha−1 for maize silage and alfalfa, respectively. These values were 5533.3 kg CO2-eq ha−1 and 4947.6 kg CO2-eq ha−1 for maize silage and alfalfa in the canal water irrigation systems, respectively. Electricity and direct emission showed the highest share of total energy consumption and GHG emission.ConclusionGenerally, our results showed that energy consumption and GWP were lower in the canal irrigation systems than well irrigation systems mainly as a result of electricity used for water pumping in well irrigation operations. It can be inferred from the present study that for efficient use of resources and decreasing environmental problems in the study area, practices such as optimal management of irrigation water, conservation tillage, and optimal management of chemical fertilizers can help to achieve these goals.
Akhtar Veisi; Hadi Veisi; Korous Khoshbakht; Reza Mirzaei Talarposhti; Reza Haghparast
Introduction: Soil health as one of the main components to achieve sustainable agricultural systems is being adversely affected by agricultural operations such as tillage. Soil health can be quantified using the specific physical, chemical, and biological parameters of the soil via specific quantitative ...
Introduction: Soil health as one of the main components to achieve sustainable agricultural systems is being adversely affected by agricultural operations such as tillage. Soil health can be quantified using the specific physical, chemical, and biological parameters of the soil via specific quantitative soil quality methods. As a result, studying soil quality and fertility in different land management systems is essential to establish appropriate crop operations to achieve optimal production and sustainable cropping systems. Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) is used as a powerful and reliable tool to assess the effect of different crop management on soil quality and health. This study aims to evaluate and quantify the effect of different tillage methods on soil quality using the SMAF algorithm.Material and methods: The present study was conducted as a field experiment based on a randomized complete block design during two cropping years in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018, in four replications. Experimental treatments included tillage methods (no-tillage, reduced tillage, and no-tillage), and the areas were considered replication. Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was planted in the first year, followed by winter chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in the second year of crop rotation in farmers' fields. Soil sampling from a soil depth of 0-30 cm was taken in two stages, before planting wheat at the beginning and after harvesting chickpeas in the second year. Important soil parameters were measured, including bulk density, phosphorus, potassium, acidity, electrical conductivity, soil organic carbon, carbon, microbial biomass, and microbial biomass nitrogen.Results and discussion: The results showed that implementing the conservation tillage methods improved some of the important soil parameters and soil quality index, indicating the positive effect of minimum soil disturbance and crop residue maintenance on soil quality. Although the physical and chemical properties of soil at the end of the second year did not change significantly compared to pre-treatment conditions, soil biological properties such as microbial biomass carbon and soil organic matter were positively affected by tillage systems. The laboratory-measured data of soil properties were well reflected in the SMAF algorithm. The results showed that at the end of the experiment, the soil quality index in the conventional plowing system was lower compared to conservation tillage methods. No-tillage had the highest value of soil quality index (0.65) at the end of the experiment. As stated in the quantitative description of soil properties, the higher quality index in the no-tillage method is mainly due to the improvement of soil biological conditions. Soil degradation due to excessive plowing, lack of residue preservation, and improper use of chemical fertilizers not only reduces soil organic matter but also degrades the physical properties of soil.Conclusion: In general, the results showed that conservation tillage methods could improve soil quality and efficiency in dryland areas, and the SMAF algorithm can be a useful tool to assess and monitor the soil quality of various cropping systems in dryland areas. However, citing the data of this study requires long-term results, and in order to evaluate the efficiency of the soil ecosystem to provide ecosystem services, it is necessary to compare crop systems with more sustainable systems such as forests and pastures
Seyedeh Leila Masumzadeh; Kouros Khoshbakht
Introduction: Conservation of biological diversity, as our intangible natural heritage, promotes the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this regard, the development and protection of homegardens, as a production system that protects agricultural biodiversity, is essential. The species richness ...
Introduction: Conservation of biological diversity, as our intangible natural heritage, promotes the sustainability of agricultural systems. In this regard, the development and protection of homegardens, as a production system that protects agricultural biodiversity, is essential. The species richness of garden crops has made home gardens suitable places for their in situ protection. Accordingly, this study evaluated the status of homegardens in Khalkhal (Iran) by assessing their agrobiodiversity indices and factors (e.g., socio-economic) affecting garden crops. Material and methods: In order to assess the biodiversity of homegardens in Khalkhal County, seven villages were selected by cluster random sampling based on the population of the villages. Data from homegardens were collected using a questionnaire, face-to-face interviews with 150 farmers, and direct observation of home gardens in the summer of 2016. Data were extracted and processed before the analysis and the qualitative data were encoded and entered into Excel software. Pearson and Spearman's rank correlations coefficients, regression coefficients and cluster analysis as well as frequency and mean were calculated using SPSS V23. Results and discussion: The results showed that the villages of Majre with 61 species and Ghezel Dargh with 31 species had the highest and lowest levels of species richness, respectively. There were no significant differences between villages based on the Shannon-Weiner index. The maximum and minimum Shannon values were calculated in Guransarab (1.99) and Lanbur (1.11) villages, respectively, and the average Shannon-Wiener value was 1.57. The results also revealed that 57% of the gardeners earned their main income from other sectors and received no income from horticulture or beekeeping. In addition, as incomes from other sectors increased, the tendency to maintain homegardens decreased. Our findings indicated that socio-economic factors and certain aspects of home gardens may affect their biodiversity and biodiversity indices. For example, the socio-economic factors of age, education level, number of household members, level of participation of women, years of experience in gardening, working hours in the garden, and knowledge of the benefits of the plant species increased the values of the biodiversity-related indices. Furthermore, the characteristics of a homegarden, such as area, incorporation of domesticated plants and short distances to sales centers were the major factors influencing the increase in biodiversity-related indices. Conclusion: The results indicated that awareness-raising measures and education, economic supports such as the establishment of farmers’ markets, branding their products and designing suitable irrigation systems for home gardeners should be taken into account in future management plans.
Javad bayat; Seyed Hossein Hashemi; Korous Khoshbakht; Reza Deihimfard
Volume 14, Issue 2 , July 2016, , Pages 1-12
In this study, 83 sampling points were chosen in the study area. Sampling was conducted at two soil depths (0-30 cm and 30-60 cm) and the concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, EC, pH and organic carbon were determined. Interpolation maps were created using the IDW method. These showed that in the top ...
In this study, 83 sampling points were chosen in the study area. Sampling was conducted at two soil depths (0-30 cm and 30-60 cm) and the concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, EC, pH and organic carbon were determined. Interpolation maps were created using the IDW method. These showed that in the top soil, soil phosphorus, EC and OC have the maximum concentration in the northern part of the area and nitrate in the southern part of the area; in second depth soil, phosphorus has the maximum concentration in the North of the area and nitrate and EC in the South of the area, while OC has a uniform distribution over the whole area. Analysis of soil chemical properties showed high concentrations of nitrate and phosphate in the upper soil layer in the studied areas, mainly due to the use of untreated urban wastewater and chemical fertilizers by the farmers; in addition, results of organic carbon measurement showed that this area has a good condition in terms of organic matters. Soil pH in the area was alkaline and EC decreased at a lower depth. The results of Spearman correlation analysis showed that EC has a positive correlation with nitrate and a negative correlation with phosphate at both depths. Also, organic carbon has a positive correlation with soil phosphate in the top soil.
Masoud Ghazvini; Hadi veisi; Abdolmajid Mahdavi-Damghani; Korous Khoshbakht; Mohammad Ali Nejatian
Volume 14, Issue 2 , July 2016, , Pages 13-22
As biodiversity declines, the ability of agro-ecosystems to produce ecosystem services such as food security deteriorates. Despite the important role of grape in the livelihood of communities that produce this crop and also its high potential for export, very few studies have been conducted on the status ...
As biodiversity declines, the ability of agro-ecosystems to produce ecosystem services such as food security deteriorates. Despite the important role of grape in the livelihood of communities that produce this crop and also its high potential for export, very few studies have been conducted on the status of biodiversity in grape production ecosystems and its relationship with different indices of productivity and stability. The data presented here were collected during face-to-face interviews with 220 grape orchardists in 2011. Results showed negative significant correlations between the Shannon-wiener index with total productivity (- 0.175**), water productivity (- 0.19**), land productivity (- 0.173**) and labour productivity (- 0.202**) as well as correlations between species richness with land productivity (- 0.14*). These results indicate negative relationship between changes in biodiversity of grapevine varieties with vineyard’s productivity and imply the long-term sustainability of the vineyards in Takestan County. Regression analysis showed that the explanation coefficients (R2) were between 0.03-0.04. We tentatively conclude from this that a 1% change in BD corresponds to approximately a 0.03-0.04% change in the value of productivity. The results also showed that the varietal diversity of vineyards have no effect on vineyards’ yield stability.
Malihe Jamali,; Korous Khoshbakht,; Reza Deihimfard; Reza Momeni Vesalian
Volume 11, Issue 4 , January 2014
South lands of Tehran are the main source of agricultural productions in which some kinds of vegetables, legumes, cereals and other crops are growing. This research measured and zoned heavy metal soil pollutionin 1500 ha of these cultivated fields south of the city of Tehran in Iran. In this study, 128 ...
South lands of Tehran are the main source of agricultural productions in which some kinds of vegetables, legumes, cereals and other crops are growing. This research measured and zoned heavy metal soil pollutionin 1500 ha of these cultivated fields south of the city of Tehran in Iran. In this study, 128 samples were collected using the systematic-random method from 64 areas at depths of 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm and the concentrations of cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc were measured. The parameters of pH, electrical conductivity, and phosphate were also recorded. Zoning maps were developed using the inverse distance weighted method. The results showed that concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception ofnickel, were higher at the shallower depth than at the lower depth. The zoning map shows that cadmium, chromium, lead and zinc occurred in greater concentrations in the northern areas and nickel in the southern areas. A comparison of these results with Iranian soil resource pollution standards indicates that the levels of chromium, nickel and zinc exceeded the standards in some parts of the study area.
Fatemeh Darijani,; Hadi Veisi,; Korous khoshbakht,; Houman Liyaghati; Ali Alipour
Volume 10, Issue 1 , October 2012
The aim of this study was to examine the energy equivalents of input and output in greenhouse cucumber production in Varamin County of Tehran Province, Iran. A survey methodology with a sample of 200 greenhouse farms was employed in 2010. The results showed that the output–input ratio, specific ...
The aim of this study was to examine the energy equivalents of input and output in greenhouse cucumber production in Varamin County of Tehran Province, Iran. A survey methodology with a sample of 200 greenhouse farms was employed in 2010. The results showed that the output–input ratio, specific energy and energy productivity were 0.017, 46.84MJ/kg and 0.02 kg/MJ, respectively. In this sense, diesel (99.03%), human labour (0.37%) and fertilizer (0.34%), had the highest proportion of energy consumption. Based on the results obtained, twostrategies including input substitution and using technical progress were recommended for the best energy efficiency.
Karl Hammer; Korous Khoshbakht
Volume 1, Issue 4 , July 2004