Hanieh Khodad Saryazdi; Samira Hosseinjafari; Mohammadreza Elmi
Introduction: Railway construction is one of the important activities in the development of any country. Railway construction operations can have an impact on the environment around the railway. This study investigated the effects of Yazd-Eghlid railway construction on some vegetation and soil characteristics ...
Introduction: Railway construction is one of the important activities in the development of any country. Railway construction operations can have an impact on the environment around the railway. This study investigated the effects of Yazd-Eghlid railway construction on some vegetation and soil characteristics of artemisia and camel grass species located in Kalmand-Bahadoran Protected Area.Material and methods: In order to evaluate the vegetation and soil variables in the studied types, random-systematic sampling method was used. Random-systematic sampling method is used; Thus, within each brigade, three areas with different distances by rail include the first area (distance 0 to 250 meters), the second area (distance 250 to 500 meters) and the third area (distance 500 to 1000 meters) from Railway was considered and vegetation and soil samples were taken. Within each area, 4 100-meter transects were randomly placed and 2 plots at the beginning and end of each transect were systematically placed. The reason for comparison of more than two groups was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Duncan test using SPSS software.Results and discussion: The results of this study showed that the construction of a railway in the Kalmand-Bahadoran Protected Area and the measures taken during the construction process may affect the physical and chemical properties of soil and vegetation, which in the Artemisia type causes a significant decrease in the production of plant vegetative form srub (0.81 g) (P <0.05). Also, a significant decrease in electrical conductivity (0.78 ds/m), potassium (0.64), acidity (7.7),lime percentage (26.25) (P <0.05), and percentage of clay (4%) (P <0.01) was observed. In the Cornulaca type, construction of railways significantly increased production (6.13 g), density (1.42), and percentage of cover form shrub (6.01) (P <0.05). It also significantly reduced the production of shrub vegetative form (0), the percentage of shrub vegetative form cover (0.17) (P <0.05) and the density of shrub vegetative form (0) (0.01), (P <0.01). Regarding the effect of railway construction on soil parameters of this type, it can be said that railway construction causes a significant increase in the percentage of rock (93%) and a significant decrease in the percentage of silt (2%), electrical conductivity (ds / m66 (P <0.05) and also significantly reduced organic matter (0.18), phosphorus (5.25 ppm) and potassium (0.63 ppm) (P <0.01).Conclusion:The construction of the railway and activities that take place during the processes for the construction of the railway units can cause the movement of soil around the railway, whichcauses soil and water erosion in the region that may lead toa decrease in soil quality in the areas near the railway and consequently, the decrease of vegetation production in the area.
Sajjad Bahrami; Ahad Sotoudeh; Naser Jamshidi; Mohammad Reza Elmi
Volume 16, Issue 3 , October 2018, , Pages 1-24
Introduction: Development of various industries, despite providing human welfare, has potential risks for mankind. Due to its extensive operations and activity and also the potential risk for humans and the environment, the petrochemical industry is considered a high-risk industry. The purpose of this ...
Introduction: Development of various industries, despite providing human welfare, has potential risks for mankind. Due to its extensive operations and activity and also the potential risk for humans and the environment, the petrochemical industry is considered a high-risk industry. The purpose of this study was to assess and prioritize the risks resulting from process activities in Kermanshah petrochemical complex using two approaches (i.e., the traditional and fuzzy FMEA method). Material and methods: The present study was an analytical-field research that has been conducted in Kermanshah petrochemical complex for 10 months. In this study, the product lines (urea and ammonia) were investigated and also a team of five experts was formed. In addition, an initial list of the most important risks and hazards in the environmental field was prepared and then, by using Brainstorming and Delphi Technique, the list was corrected. Finally, environmental risk assessment in the form of traditional and fuzzy FMEA methods was evaluated. Results and discussion: According to the results, 38 risks were identified by traditional FMEA. The highest priority risk was related to hydrogen and ammonia gas emissions when the ammonia unit was out of service by RPN number of 491. The lowest priority risk belonged to ammonia effluents by RPN number of 28. Also, the highest risks to air pollution, as well as the causes of the risks were related to defects in the system and connections. The results of input fuzziﬁcation and output FMEA method showed that among the 15 identified risks in the petrochemical complex, the highest number of fuzzy priority in the health section was related to noise pollution (0.75), in the safety section was falling from the heights (0.75), and in the environmental sector for the reduction of ecological resources (0.613). Conclusion: Comparing these two approaches suggest that the traditional FMEA is powerful in the early stages of risk assessment process, and on the other hand, the fuzzy approach is more flexible and user-friendly in the stage of prioritizing the risks.