Shina Ansari Hamedani; Reza Arjmandi; Saeed Motessadi Zarandi; Mohammad Ali Baghestani; Reza Azizinezhad
Introduction: Consumption of organophosphorus pesticides in agriculture causes many environmental problems. Water and soil pollution and disruption of the balance of natural ecosystems, the emergence of new pests and diseases, the presence of pesticide residues in agricultural products and the resulting ...
Introduction: Consumption of organophosphorus pesticides in agriculture causes many environmental problems. Water and soil pollution and disruption of the balance of natural ecosystems, the emergence of new pests and diseases, the presence of pesticide residues in agricultural products and the resulting health effects have made the consumption management of organic phosphorus pesticides an unavoidable necessity. Despite the low per capita consumption of pesticides in the country on a global scale, the unfavorable use of organophosphorus pesticides in some parts of the country, including the Northern provinces and the resulting pollution, is one of the most important environmental issues in the country. In this study, according to the EIQ (Environmental Impact Quotient), diazinon pesticide was evaluated as hazardous to the environment of the study area due to its widespread use against Chilo suppressalis in water and soil of paddy fields.Material and methods: Detection of diazinon pesticide in water and soil of paddy fields in Mazandaran province was done by determining fixed stations for sampling in accordance with spraying paddy fields. A total of 50 soil and water samples were gathered for the first cultivation and 30 soil and water samples were gathered for the second cultivation and were measured by Gas Chromatography after being transferred to the laboratory. Sampling was done from late June to mid-August for the first cultivation, and from the first week of September to late October for the second cultivation of rice. Sampling was done in three seasons: spring, summer (before transplanting or during harvest) and autumn (for the second rice cultivation).Results and discussion: The results of measuring the target pesticide show a significant difference in the amount of diazinon in the water of the first cultivation compared to the second cultivation and the soil of the first cultivation compared to the second cultivation. Also, the average of diazinon in the water samples of the second cultivation was 7.8 times higher compared to the first cultivation and 1.66 times higher in the soil samples of the second cultivation compared to the first cultivation, which indicates high and alarming amounts of diazinon in the second rice cultivation. Stability and solubility of diazinon, as well as the environmental conditions of Mazandaran province, especially the high groundwater level, extend the life of this pesticide and consequently cause serious environmental hazards.Conclusion: Sustainable use of cultivated lands with a focus on improving production efficiency and increasing crop efficiency, creating a strategic center and a single regulator in the country to manage pesticide consumption, develop general and specialized training for groups of stakeholders in the production, supply and consumption of pesticides, registration and application of pesticides based on environmental impact factor, gradual removal and replacement of high-risk pesticide diazinon and the use of new methods and technologies to deal with important pests of rice are among the most important things that should be considered as strategies and executive policies resulting from research.
Sona Kebriaeezadeh; Jamal Ghodduosi; Ali Asghar Alesheikh; Reza Arjmandi; Seyed Alireza Mirzahosseini
Introduction: Rapid and uncontrolled expansion of cities, increased traffic, industrial enterprises and low-quality fuels, as well as urban morphology parameters and climatic conditions are among the factors affecting air pollution in urban areas. In Iran, the metropolis of Isfahan, which is the third ...
Introduction: Rapid and uncontrolled expansion of cities, increased traffic, industrial enterprises and low-quality fuels, as well as urban morphology parameters and climatic conditions are among the factors affecting air pollution in urban areas. In Iran, the metropolis of Isfahan, which is the third largest urban area in the country, has an increased air pollution due to the extensive development of industrial enterprises, and population and urban growth. Therefore, in order to find the factors affecting the trend of air quality changes, trend analysis and evaluation of the relationship between land use parameters, industrial development and traffic situation with air pollution indicators were studied.Material and methods: In order to evaluate the trend using measured periodic data and simple correlation and regression methods of seven air pollutants including PM2.5, PM10, CO, SO2, NO, NO2 and NOX as dependent variables and meteorological parameters, type of land use, industry development and vehicles were analyzed as independent variables. Also, SPSS software was used to test the normal distribution of data sets including the concentration of air pollutants and meteorology from 1387 to 1394, in 10 air pollution measuring stations and three meteorological stations in Isfahan metropolis.Results and discussion: The results of the study show that the average annual concentration of PM (PM10 / PM2.5), NO and CO decreased and the average annual concentration of SO2, NO2 and NOXincreased. In addition, the average annual rainfall, temperature and wind speed increased while the trend of relative humidity in the study area did not change significantly. It was also found that the trend of residential, educational, commercial, public services, transportation and the number of industrial units and vehicles has increased significantly. However, the amount of agricultural land, green space and industrial areas has significantly decreased in the study area. The results of stepwise regression analysis showed that changing the use of agricultural land to residential areas and increasing wind speed may have caused the decreasing trend of NO, CO, and suspended particles in the study area. In addition, the increasing trend of transportation can be the most important reason for the increase in NO2 concentration. On the other hand, due to the increasing trend of NOX emissions and significant negative correlation with green space and positive correlation with transportation and industrial areas and the result of stepwise regression model, it can be concluded that reducing green space and an increase of 99.5% in the area of transportation use increases the NOX concentration in the study area. In addition, the size of utility centers increases the concentration of SO2 and there is a negative relationship between the concentration of PM2.5 and SO2 (as the concentration of SO2 increases, the concentration of PM2.5 increases).Conclusion: It is noteworthy that the relationship between air quality indicators as dependent variables with independent variables in urban areas is complex and it is not clear which specific factor or parameter is the most important scenario of air pollution in an urban context. Therefore, more detailed research is needed.
Shideh Atri; Mostafa Panahi; Reza Arjmandi; Alireza Gharagozlou
Introduction: Reviewing the Function of many environmental conservation organizations over the past decades, including in Iran, shows that the focus of environmental orientations and policies, due to the lack of accurate and reliable information, is more dependent on the application of instructions and ...
Introduction: Reviewing the Function of many environmental conservation organizations over the past decades, including in Iran, shows that the focus of environmental orientations and policies, due to the lack of accurate and reliable information, is more dependent on the application of instructions and guidance methods, and less Quantitative management approaches are used. Therefore, this study is aimed at modeling the process of land use changes in the last thirty years (1987-2018) and predicting the future status in case of continuation of the current trend and using improper management patterns. For this purpose, the InVEST software is used to analyze the present situation and to draw future conditions. The results in map form provide a good opportunity for managers and decision-makers to infer trends in future changes and modify management patterns to improve conditions. Material and methods: In this study, satellite images of Landsat 5, 7 and 8 According to years 1987, 2000 and 2018, were used for land use mapping in Jajrood protected area through extraction in ENVI 5.3 remote sensing software and ArcGIS 10.3 software. The accuracy of the classifications has been evaluated. According to the purpose of the study the area of study is divided into 10 user units. These units include poor rangelands, rich rangelands, planted forests, agricultural lands, barren lands, dam, residential areas, rivers, dirt and paved roads and the status and area of each user unit was determined.Finally, the scenario generator model of the InVEST software version 3.6.0., which uses a completely new approach to quantify and map, was applied in mapping the status of the future. Results and discussion: According to the results of the past 30 years, the extent of residential areas, roads and planted forests has increased, and the extent of river distribution has decreased, as a result poor rangelands increased and rich rangelands decreased as well as changes in barren lands was clearly visible. So that, the extent of the barren lands has declined by the year 2000 due to the conversion to man-made use (near residential areas) and poor rangelands (due to favorable weather conditions, including suitable rainfall). The situation in the Barren areas during the period ending in 2018 has increased due to the bad weather (drought) and the irregular grazing of livestock and the conversion of poor rangelands into the Barren areas. The agricultural lands have increased over a period of time due to its proximity to residential areas and then a downward trend has taken place due to increasing land value. In recent years, the Mamlou Dam has also been constructed and operated in the area. In fact, because of Jajrood's proximity to large city of Tehran and the increasing population, the need for ecosystem services in the area has increased, and man-made uses being replaced natural land uses.Future forecasts showed that the extent of planted forests, barren and residential areas would increase; rangelands and agricultural lands would decrease. During the study period, rich rangelands marked as the most reduced area and residential areas marked as the most increased area. Conclusion: The Jajrood Protected Area has undergone significant land use changes over the past 30 years due to human intervention. These changes have been caused by economic and social changes. It has been accompanied by management challenges in adherence to safeguards and efforts to achieve the defined goals for such areas. The changes of natural land use and the replacement of man-made use in the face of unnecessary development have undermined the natural landscape of the Jajrood Protected Area. This study showed that changes in multiple ecosystem services will act as major drivers of human change through changes in land cover / land use.In addition to identifying land use change, identifying suitable areas for natural capital conservation, man-made use development and sustainable land use, spatial development planning can be carried out in a way that reduces future uncertainties. It will result in making informed decisions and foster synergies in both environmental and development sectors.