Hamid Ershadifar; Kamalodin Kor; Emad Koochaknejad; ََََAmir Ghazilou; Gholamrasoul Baskaleh
Introduction: Chabahar Bay is a semi-enclosed marine environment in the southeastern coast of Iran, withtwo important ports i.e., Konarak and Chabahar in its margins. The connection of this Bay to the Indian Oceanthrough the Gulf of Oman causes this region to be affected by the monsoon phenomenon, especially ...
Introduction: Chabahar Bay is a semi-enclosed marine environment in the southeastern coast of Iran, withtwo important ports i.e., Konarak and Chabahar in its margins. The connection of this Bay to the Indian Oceanthrough the Gulf of Oman causes this region to be affected by the monsoon phenomenon, especially thesouthwest monsoon, from late spring to late summer. Due to the expansion of various industries and increasingmarginal population, aquatic environments are expected to be severely affected by human activities. Sensitiveecosystems such as coral reef habitats and mangrove forests are vulnerable to these changes. In this research,the effects of the monsoon phenomenon on physicochemical parameters, nutrient concentration, andchlorophyll-a (Chl-a) were studied. The possibility of nutrient loading through the ports of Konarak and Tisswas examined by comparing the results from these ports with the adjacent stations in the Bay.Material and methods: Sampling from two depths (0.5 m beneath the surface and 1 m above the bottom) at4 stations was performed using 5l Niskin bottle in three replicates during five seasons. Physicochemicalparameters were measured by relevant portable probes at the sampling site. In the laboratory, the reagents wereprepared for colorimetric detection according to the standard instructions, and the amount of nutrients weremeasured by spectrophotometer in a quartz cell with a path length of 2 cm. Statistical analyses were performedusing PRIMER 6 and STATISTICA 10 software.Results and discussion: According to the acquired results, the concentration of phosphate, nitrite, and nitrate,as well as Chl-a, were higher in the post-monsoon period and were in the order of post-monosoon > pre- monsoon> monsooon. In the case of silicate, its trend was different and showed a decreasing trend in the order of pre-monsoon> monsoon≈post-monsoon. Comparison of inter-annual results showed that the phosphate, nitrate, and nitrite values recorded in 2017 were higher than the corresponding values in 2013-2014. Chl-a showed a positive correlation with the nutrient concentration, which indicated that the primary production was controled by the nutrient availablity. The pH and dissolved oxygen values had a positive correlation and both were generally low in the pre-monsoon than the post-monsoon in both sampling periods of 2013-2014 and 2017.Conclusion: Comparison of the results between 2013-2014 and 2017 showed that there were differences in nutrient concentrations and physicochemical parameters due to variations in the intensity and duration of the monsoon in different years. High concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, and nitrite in the post-monsoon season occurred due to the monsoon-induced upwelling and the emergence of nutrient-rich waters. Lower silicates in the post-monsoon than the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons seems to be the result of the silicate depletion by diatoms that show outbreaks during this period, as the Chl-a in the post-monsoon was greater than the preceding seasons. Finally, the amount of nutrients was significantly higher in two marginal ports compared to adjacent stations in the Bay. However, they are still not at the stage to intensely elevate the nutrients levels throughout the Bay.
Amir Ghazilou; Kamalodin Kor; Hamid Ershadifar; Emad Koochaknejad; Mahshid Oladi
Introduction: Hypersaline ecosystems provide excellent conditions for ecological studies of aquatic ecosystems. Lipar Lagoon is an understudied hypersaline lagoon located in southeasternmost Iran (northern Gulf of Oman). Knowledge about the biotic and abiotic characteristics of this hypersaline water ...
Introduction: Hypersaline ecosystems provide excellent conditions for ecological studies of aquatic ecosystems. Lipar Lagoon is an understudied hypersaline lagoon located in southeasternmost Iran (northern Gulf of Oman). Knowledge about the biotic and abiotic characteristics of this hypersaline water system is limited. This research thus investigated the plankton community composition and abundance, and also its variability under variable environmental conditions over one year. Material and methods: Monthly (five replicates each month) water samplings were performed from 2017 to 2018, during pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon seasons. Physicochemical properties of water were measured at the site using a portable multi-meter, while other parameters such as silicate, nitrate, and phosphate were analyzed by spectrophotometry. For plankton identification and density measurements, each sample was fixed by adding 3ml of acidic Lugol’s solution, and transferred to the laboratory for further analysis. Results and discussion: The plankton community observed during the study period included Fabrea salina, Dunaliella salina, Pseudo-nitzschia sp., and Spirulina sp. Temporal variations in plankton abundance were evident, mostly in September and November, most of which occurred due to the difference in the abundance of D. salina and F. salina. The impact of environmental parameters including salinity and the concentration of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, silicate, and phosphate on the community structure of planktons was significant. Conclusion: The combination of high salinity, high evaporation rate, low freshwater input, and consequently, low nutrient levels may be the main factors behind the low biodiversity in the lagoon. Being under pronounced anthropogenic pressure due to salt extraction activities, it is evident that further hydrobiological monitoring is crucial for the long-term preservation of the lagoon