Parvaneh Shateri; Sadegh Salehi; Mansoor Sharifi; Reza Ali Mohseni
Introduction: Adapting to climate change and changing energy-related behaviors to reduce global warming isa necessity in today's societies that would not be possible without the full participation of people and groups,including environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The numerous environmental ...
Introduction: Adapting to climate change and changing energy-related behaviors to reduce global warming isa necessity in today's societies that would not be possible without the full participation of people and groups,including environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The numerous environmental problems andthe difficulty of urban management in major cities such as Tehran make the need for these organizations moreexpansive, as the development of environmental NGOs will lead to increased participation and decisionmakingin the field of environment. In this regard, understanding the reasons and motivations of individualsfor participation in NGOs as the main objective of the present study can lead to the development of suchorganizations to achieve sustainable development. Previous research in this area has been very few and oftenwith a quantitative approach.Material and methods: The approach of this study was interpretation and was done using the grounded theory.Participants were selected based on a purposive sampling of snowball type from 20 members of environmentalNGOs in Tehran in the year 2018_19. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed usingopen, axial, and selective coding steps. The concepts were transformed into subcategories and categories and the paradigm model was extracted in four parts: causal conditions, confounding conditions, strategies, and consequences that revolve around the central phenomenon.Results and discussion: The data analysis showed that causal conditions affecting members' motivation to participate in environmental NGOs were based on personal reasons (e.g., sensory and naturalistic experiences, field of study, and transcendental attitudes), interest in environmental activities, and acquisition of dignity. Also, the influential intervening conditions include structural constraints (environmental fragility, lack of context for civic activities, etc.), intrinsic environmental value, and neighborhood (natural habitat and occupational proximity). In addition, the results of the study showed that the strategies adopted by the executants in the short and long term were symbolic activities, criticism, member empowerment, expert recruitment, scientific approach to programs, consulting with planners, networking relationships, interaction, and collective wisdom. Finally, the results of the present study showed that the consequences of adopting these strategies were horizontal and vertical impact, scientific exchange, executive management, and qualitative and quantitative development.Conclusion: The main motivation of the members to participate in environmental NGOs is environmental concerns. To achieve this, members are interested in establishing or joining an NGO to develop inter-group and intra-group relationships so that they can provide the necessary framework for changing behaviors and reducing or solving environmental problems. In addition, studying the reasons and motivations of members to participate in environmental NGOs can provide mechanisms for attracting others to develop and expand these organizations.
Sadegh Salehi; Hadi Ebrahimi
Introduction: Optimizing energy consumption including water consumption has always been emphasized in all Five-Year Development in Iran. According to Managing Director of Mazandaran Regional Water Authority, said: "We see a lot of changes in the annual flow of rivers in the province, with the average ...
Introduction: Optimizing energy consumption including water consumption has always been emphasized in all Five-Year Development in Iran. According to Managing Director of Mazandaran Regional Water Authority, said: "We see a lot of changes in the annual flow of rivers in the province, with the average long-term runoff in the rivers of the province is 4500 million cubic meters, which is based on the average The 11-year-old has been reduced to 3900 million cubic meters. He evaluated the precipitation situation during the first two months of the year positively and said: "Compared to last year, about 40 mm of rain was observed, but the river discharge decreased by an average of 39% compared to the index period." He added: "So far, 45% of the volume of reservoirs in the dam has been dewatered. Unfortunately, this rate is about 27% in Shahid Rajaee Dam, which we hope will reach 60%. To resolve the water shortage issue and deal rationally with water problem, the government, has already introduce a project name Danab. This project aims at educating school student with water knowledge and prober behavior. This project believes that of all social groups, school students play significant role to optimize water consumption. Education Organization has already started to apply Danab Project to create and increase students’ knowledge toward water. The organization presume that students’ water consumption behavior will be modified by creasing their water knowledge through this educational program. As such, this study aims to assess students’ water knowledge a well as this knowledge effects on water behavior. Material and methods: This project was conducted in Mazandaran province were the public assume there is no waste shortages. This study focused on school students to identify what socio-cultural factors are influencing their water knowledge as well their water consumption behavior. This study benefited survey method. Survey methodology studies the sampling of individual units from a population and associated techniques of survey data collection, such as questionnaire construction and methods for improving the number and accuracy of responses to surveys. Survey methodology includes instruments or procedures that ask one or more questions that may or may not be answered. Having applied survey method, a total of 501 high school students have been selected by using stratified sampling method. The sample were selected across different cities in Mazandaran in 2018. The data was collect via benefiting questionnaire technique and has been processed by using SPSS programme. Results and discussion: The results of the current research revealed that there is significant relation between cultural factors and students’ water consumption behavior. The results also showed that the assumed relationship between social factors and water consumption was confirmed empirically. Based on the results of the study, it can be aid that the relationship between institutional factors and students’ water consumption behavior was confirmed. Finally, the results of the study confirmed there was a relationship between water consumption behavior and social back ground of the surveyed students. Conclusion: The result of the research showed that environmental values, religious belief, formal control and civic participation have played a significant role to guide students water consumption behavior. The result also indicated that environmental values has played most significant role to contribute students’ water knowledge.
Sadegh salehi; Atefeh Qolamdoust
Volume 11, Issue 1 , April 2013
Wetland habitats are natural ecosystems, which play a significant role in the development of surrounding communities. Due to their importance, the Convention on Wetlands Protection was ratified on 2nd February, 1971, in the city of Ramsar, Guilan, Iran. Anzali wetlands are registered as freshwater wetlands, ...
Wetland habitats are natural ecosystems, which play a significant role in the development of surrounding communities. Due to their importance, the Convention on Wetlands Protection was ratified on 2nd February, 1971, in the city of Ramsar, Guilan, Iran. Anzali wetlands are registered as freshwater wetlands, and, currently, more than a million people either work or live around the lagoon. To consider the role of local people in the conservation of wetlands, in this paper, we ask, “What is the level of awareness sustained by local people regarding the Anzali Wetlands”? The Model of Collaborative Management for Wetlands has been used to assess the community viewpoint in this regard.In terms of methodology, the current study uses a survey method to study 50 sample cases of local people living in the area of wetlands, as well as wetland stakeholders. Using statistical tests, the results showed that the local community was more aware of the collaborative management of wetlands than public administration employees