Ahmad Fatahi Ardakani; Ahmad Soltani-Zoghi; Afsaneh Serajeddin
Introduction: By increasing pollution and environmental crises, governments have set out a set of environmental policies and regulations aiming at improving environmental quality. The effectiveness of environmental regulations is a problem that many policymakers and governments ignore. The purpose of ...
Introduction: By increasing pollution and environmental crises, governments have set out a set of environmental policies and regulations aiming at improving environmental quality. The effectiveness of environmental regulations is a problem that many policymakers and governments ignore. The purpose of this study was to answer the question of how far the changes in environmental policies and regulations can affect pollution control and, on the other hand, whether foreign direct investment control rules can be effective in reducing emissions of pollutants? Material and methods: The data used in this study was panel type and for 18 countries (MENA region) in the period 1990-2017. In this study, three indicators of wastewater, emissions, and greenhouse gas emissions were used to determine the environmental quality. The procedure used by the GMM method was first-order differential. The advantage of this method is counteracting the data latent endogenousity and allow for the dynamism for estimates. Sargan test in this model was a test for the detection of constraints. Its zero assumption shows the over-identified limitations in the GMM model. Results and discussion: The results of the study were evaluated in three basic models. The first model was determined based on four variables i.e. industrialization, foreign direct investment, environmental laws and regulations, and rules for the control of foreign direct investment. In models 2 and 3, respectively, the effects of population and GDP variables and the second power of the GDP test population effect and Kuznets' environmental theory were reviewed. The application of environmental regulations and foreign direct investment can properly be a factor in controlling the emission of air pollutants, but the effect of environmental laws on the release of pollutants was positive and increased the emission levels of these pollutants. The sign of population effect coefficient in the studied years in this study was obtained with different signs. The effect of all environmental indicators in the model is significant, but the effect of industrial effluents among pollutants will make the environmental effect uncertain.. Foreign direct investment is a very important factor in the emission of pollutants after the emission of wastewater and other greenhouse gases. The variable coefficient of FDI for all three models for wastewater was significant at 1% level and equal to 1.481, 1.371, and 2.306 in models 1 to 3, respectively. Conclusion: The negative effect of the foreign direct investment on environmental quality in the MENA region was confirmed, which established the truth of the hypothesis of pollution in the region. On the other hand, the impact of the population on wastewater and emissions has positive effects on the quality of the environment. Policies and laws focus on environmental control and foreign direct investment, reducing the level of pollutants and improving the quality of the environment.
َAhmad Soltani Zoghi; Gholam Reza Soltani Mohammadi
Introduction: From the perspective of many experts and decision makers, advances in irrigation technology are the main cause of reducing water consumption. Despite these comments, many experts are skeptical of this conclusion. Despite the improvement of irrigation, drainage technologies and improvement ...
Introduction: From the perspective of many experts and decision makers, advances in irrigation technology are the main cause of reducing water consumption. Despite these comments, many experts are skeptical of this conclusion. Despite the improvement of irrigation, drainage technologies and improvement of resistant species, the expected reduction in water consumption have never occurred. Can the water rebound effect (WRE) phenomenon be responsible for the lack of reduction in water intake? What is the situation in Iran? This study sought to answer these questions. Material and methods: First, it was necessary to determine the impact of technology on the agricultural sector in the provinces using panel data. The data for the years 1370 to 1396 were used for this purpose. In the next step, using information about water consumption and agricultural sector products over the years under consideration along with the estimated model, the factors of agricultural growth rate, water consumption growth rate, and expected and ongoing savings were calculated. The results of these calculations indicated the rate of water rebound effect in the agriculture sector for 31 provinces and made it possible to discuss the effect of WRE on different regions with a simple comparison. To help policy-makers, the five divisions of the Ministry of Interior was used. Results and discussion: The rate of participation in the development of technology was at a high level of significance (0.043). The agricultural WRE amount in Iran was 319.9%. This study confirmed the effect of WRE on agriculture in the country. The effect of water rebound on all regions of the country was also clearly visible and even some industrial provinces such as East Azerbaijan and Khuzestan were more severely affected by this phenomenon. The highest intensity of WRE was observed in the 3rd region of the country, including the provinces of East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Ardabil, Zanjan, Gilan and Kurdistan, and the lowest was in the 5th area including Razavi, Southern and Northern Khorasan, Kerman, Yazd, and Sistan and Baluchestan. The intensity of the WRE in the southern and eastern regions of the country was lower than in the northern and western regions. The reason for the relatively lower intensity of this phenomenon in the southern and eastern regions was the limited access to water resources, lack of funding to change the irrigation technology, high-quality land, and specialized labor. Although less intensely, it could be clearly seen that more than 80 percent of the saved water across the country was due to the improvement of technology, which was significant in the field of irrigation technologies, by the same agricultural sector. This it indicates the intensity of the WRE phenomenon on the country's agriculture. Conclusion: The trend of increasing water use in agriculture in the country after applying government support policies and the development of irrigation technologies along with the calculated WRE indicated that improving irrigation technologies, due to the increased productivity, initially reduces water consumption, and also, higher profitability can be achieved by reducing water consumption costs. Increased profit is a motive to expand the crop area, which will increase water consumption, in some cases, more than initial consumption. At this very moment, it is necessary that the authorities focus on controlling the water rebound phenomenon, in addition to the concept of reducing water consumption in the agricultural sector.