Farid Salmanpour; Faraham Ahmadzadeh; Romina Sayyahnia; Bahram Hasanzade Kiabi
Introduction: Climate change along with human development created additional pressure on ecosystems, so in many cases it has caused a decrease in biodiversity. Global climate change continues as a global crisis. Climate change does not affect all habitats and species equally. Rather, large species are ...
Introduction: Climate change along with human development created additional pressure on ecosystems, so in many cases it has caused a decrease in biodiversity. Global climate change continues as a global crisis. Climate change does not affect all habitats and species equally. Rather, large species are more affected by climate change and habitat change and are more vulnerable than other species. Also, studies show that the countries of the Middle East have been severely affected by the effects of climate change. Large herbivores, especially red deer (Cervus elaphus), are not only affected by habitat changes resulting from climate change, but also the increase in temperature has reduced the survival rate of calves and impaired reproduction. The Caspian red deer in Iran has lost a lot of its population under the influence of habitat destruction and illegal hunting, and today the remaining population tolerate additional pressure from climate change. Central Alborz Protected Area is considered as a main breeding habitat of Caspian red deer, which is affected by human development and climate change today.Material and methods: In this study, in order to investigate the impact of climate change on the red deer population, temperature and precipitation data of two meteorological stations, Nowshahr in the lower elevations, and Baladeh in the southern elevations, were used. Also, presence and non-presence points of the species were collected random transects direct observation, as well as pictures of camera traps.Results and discussion: Using 19 climate parameters to evaluate habitat suitability in the future, it revealed that continuation of the climate change process in four optimistic to pessimistic scenarios using five MaxEnt, RF, ANN, GLM, MARS algorithms, the suitability of low altitude areas in the sectors of north and east will be reduced, and will be increased towards to highlands in southwest. The results showed that the parameters of average annual temperature, average daily temperature, average temperature of the dry season, average temperature of the hottest season, annual rainfall, rainfall in the wettest season, and rainfall in the hottest season have an effective role in determination of the habitat suitability of the species. The results of the climate data showed that the altitude plays an effective role in reducing the effects of climate change, so that the climate change in the downstream areas has a significant intensity compared to the high areas. According to the change of habitat suitability resulting from the continuation of the climate change, Kojoor forest zone shows the relative stability of desirability for the studied species in the present and future, but the Kheyrud forest road with a total length of more than 50 km is located in the depth of this area, where the traffic of vehicles of herders, ecotourists and especially illegal hunters have facilitated access to this habitat, which is the most main threat to survival of red deer in this habitat.Conclusion: With the continuation of climate change and its effects on the habitat in the future, it is expected that female deers will be observed in unsafe parts of the habitat. Therefore, for conservation of the Caspian red deer population in the central Alborz Protected Area, robust management measures are needed based on created habitat changes in the future.
Maryam Saberian Sani; Romina Sayyahnia
Introduction: Functional infrastructures act as an integrated system to support sustainable development. Therefore, it is worthwhile to use appropriate methods to evaluate the range capacities of functional infrastructures and the balance between them.Material and methods: In this research, the FUICC ...
Introduction: Functional infrastructures act as an integrated system to support sustainable development. Therefore, it is worthwhile to use appropriate methods to evaluate the range capacities of functional infrastructures and the balance between them.Material and methods: In this research, the FUICC Catastrophe Model (FCM1) was used to evaluate the balance between the range capacity of functional infrastructures in the provinces of Iran. This model uses the methods of analysis of mean variance (MVA) and Critical Path Method (CPM), also the Load-Carrier modewas used to reflect the level of support for functional environmental infrastructure. The studied indicators were extracted from experimental data collected from 31 provinces of Iran by reviewing valid scientific sources in the field of functional infrastructure from 2015 to 2020 and the data used using the latest available statistics.Results and discussion: The results of this study showed that Gilan Province has the highest range capacity in green space infrastructure and Tehran Province has the highest range capacity in conventional functional and environmental infrastructures and also Tehran Province ranks first in the country in terms of balance between infrastructures. Regarding load-bearing analysis, the reflection of the level of support of functional environmental infrastructures shows that provinces such as Tehran, contrary to the good evaluation they showed in measuring range capacity. Due to the existing cargo volume, they do not provide a good level of support, and on the contrary, provinces such as Qom, which showed poor range capacity in this field, recorded good environmental performance for some factors in load-bearing analysis.Conclusion: There is a difference in the range capacity of functional infrastructure between provinces and in some areas with factors such as political, industrial, tourist, etc., it is higher than other provinces and the degree of balance between the capacity of functional infrastructure is generally weak in the provinces of Iran. Also, the reflection of the level of support of functional infrastructures has negative fluctuations and in general, in assessing the range capacity of functional infrastructures, there is a need for management measures .
Parastoo Hassanpour; Romina Sayyahnia; Hassan Esmaeilzadeh
Introduction: Urban green space, as an important part of the urban complex ecosystem, offers many ecological, social, and economic services that contribute to the quality of life in cities. Today, the rapid growth of urbanization, along with a lot of changes in land cover and land use, has caused many ...
Introduction: Urban green space, as an important part of the urban complex ecosystem, offers many ecological, social, and economic services that contribute to the quality of life in cities. Today, the rapid growth of urbanization, along with a lot of changes in land cover and land use, has caused many environmental impacts associated with a reduction in green spaces and, as a result, have negative environmental impacts. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the trend of changes in the extent and structure of green spaces in the 22nd district of Tehran from 1996 to 2018 with the landscape ecology approach. Material and methods: One of the principles of the ecology of the land is to examine the changes in land use and land cover over time. Accordingly, in the present study, using LANDSAT satellite imagery from 1996 and 2018, landslide maps of Tehran’s District 22 were first developed in four classes including man-made, green spaces, open spaces, and water patches. In the following, the selection of landscape metrics at the level of the landscape including normalized entropy, relative richness, edge density, patch area, patch compactness and class-level metrics including the number of patches, edge density at the class level, mean patch size, and mean shape index were analyzed for landscape analysis. Results and discussion: The findings reveal that green areas of zone 22 of Tehran in 2018, in aspect of cohesion, size and shape, structurally have been changed rather than 1996, and don't have desirable situation, because the structure of urban green spaces have been diminished. Namely, two type of basic changes have been occurred in ecological landscape, includes developing new polygons and segmentation of polygons. Conclusion: The findings of the research indicated that green patches in the district 22 of Tehran, in comparison with previous years, in terms of number, area, size and shape have undergone major changes and are not in a desirable condition, because the structure of urban green spaces have been fragmented. Accordingly, suitable spots for the development and improvement of the continuity of urban green patches were presented.