Mojtaba G. Mahmoodlu; Nader Jandaghi; Maryam Sayadi
Introduction: Corrosion and precipitationare physicochemical processes that reduce the amount of water flow in water transfer pipes and the effective life of water supply facilities, increase the energy consumption for water transfer, and cause some diseases among consumers. The present study was conducted ...
Introduction: Corrosion and precipitationare physicochemical processes that reduce the amount of water flow in water transfer pipes and the effective life of water supply facilities, increase the energy consumption for water transfer, and cause some diseases among consumers. The present study was conducted to investigate the corrosion tendency and precipitationalong the Gorganroud River from highlands to the Gorgan Gulf. Material and methods: In this study, the results of the analysis of 11 physicochemical parameters (Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Bicarbonate, Sulfate, Chloride, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, temperature, and pH) of the Gorganroud River during a period of 10 years were used (2004-2014).First, the annual mean changes in the qualitative parameters of water samples during the statistical period of the studied stations were investigated. Then, triangular diagrams were used to assess the Gorganroud River hydrochemical at the studied stations. Next, changes in water hardness as an important qualitative parameter in the industrial, agricultural, and drinking sectors were investigated along the Gorganroud River. Saturation indices were used to predict and the probability of precipitation or dissolution of some carbonate minerals (such as calcite, dolomite) and evaporites (such as anhydrite, gypsum, and halite) along the Gorganrood River. Then, the trend of changes in Langelier, Ryznar, Puckorius, Larson-Skold corrosion indices, corrosion ratio, and the calcium carbonate precipitation potential of Gorganroud River at four stations was investigated. Next, a one-way ANOVA test was used to investigate the significance level of indices in the studied stations. Finally, the relationship between mineral saturation indices and corrosion indices was investigated. Results and discussion: Based on the accumulation and distribution pattern of the samples in the triangular diagram, the dominant water type in the Gorganroud River is bicarbonate on the margin of heights, and as it enters the plain and the chloride ion concentration increases, it tends to reach full maturity, the sodium chloride type. Hardness increased along the water movement path. The results of saturation indices showed that the river’s water is supersaturated with carbonate minerals and undersaturated with evaporite minerals. Based on Ryznar, Puckorius and Larson-Skold indices, Gorganroud River water tends to cause corrosion. However, the precipitation rate increased from the margin of highlands to Gorgan Gulf. The results of the calcium carbonate precipitation potential and Langelier Index indicated that Gorganroud River tends to precipitation over the study area. Investigation of the relationship between saturation indices with corrosion indices and calcium carbonate precipitation potential showed linear relationships between qualitative indices and saturation indices. The results of the statistical test showed a significant difference between the calculated indices in the studied stations. Conclusion: Although based on the hydrochemical results the main factor controlling water chemistry of the Gorganroud River was the water-rock reaction, factors such as saline water intrusion of Gorgan Gulf in the lower part of the river and inflow of untreated effluents into the river caused rapid hydrochemical evolution of the river and reached the sodium chloride type. Increasing the number of physicochemical parameters along the river path in addition to increasing the water hardness, has reduced corrosion and increased precipitation rate. Statistical results showed a clear linear relationship between saturation indices and corrosion and sequestration indices in water.
Mojtaba Ghareh Mahmoodlu; Ali Heshmatpoor; Nader Jandaghi; Ali Zare; Hossein Mehrabi
Introduction: Groundwater quality study is one of the important tools for the sustainable development of a region and provides crucial information for managing water in different sectors. In recent years, water withdrawal from Iran's aquifers has reduced the groundwater quality in most of the plains. ...
Introduction: Groundwater quality study is one of the important tools for the sustainable development of a region and provides crucial information for managing water in different sectors. In recent years, water withdrawal from Iran's aquifers has reduced the groundwater quality in most of the plains. This research was conducted to investigate the groundwater quality of Seydan-Farooq plain for agricultural and drinking purposes and also mapping some effective chemical parameters in these two sections. Material and methods: In this research, the results of chemical analysis of twelve wells in 2016 were used. First, groundwater type and hydrogeochemical facies were determined. Factors controlling groundwater chemistry were determined using Gibbs diagram and plot of Ca+Mg versus SO4+HCO3. To classify water for irrigation, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (%Na), magnesium ratio, corrosivity ratio, and permeability index were used. Then, the map of some important parameters for irrigation water was prepared. To classify water for drinking purposes, chemical parameters were first compared with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Next, some important parameters for drinking such as total dissolved solids, total hardness, and chloride ion concentration were compared with existing standards and their effects on human health were discussed. Then, the map of these parameters for the study plain was prepared. Finally, the quality of water for drinking purposes was evaluated using the Schoeller diagram. Results and discussion: The distribution pattern of samples in Durov diagram indicated the tendency of some samples to reach the end of the hydrogeochemical evolutionary cycle. As such, the bicarbonate type was changed into chloride type in a short time. Based on Gibbs diagram and the plot of Ca+Mg versus SO4+HCO3, rock-water interaction and dissolution of carbonate rocks were the main factors changing the groundwater chemical quality of the plain. According to SAR value, all samples fell in the excellent category which is suitable for irrigation and there is no risk of soil alkalinity. While in terms of salinity (EC), they are acceptable in the agricultural sector. Based on the percentage of sodium, samples were categorized as excellent, which are suitable for irrigation. According to the permeability index, all samples, except for one sample, showed good irrigation quality and did not change the soil permeability. In the majority of samples, the magnesium ratio was less than 50, which is suitable for irrigation. Comparison of chemical parameters with the WHO guidelines showed that none of the parameters exceeded the permissible limit. Comparison of TDS and chloride in samples with other existing standards showed that only one sample was brackish, which is not suitable for drinking purposes. Based on the groundwater hardness, water of the study plain was classified as high hardness water. According to the Schoeller diagram, the water quality of the study plain was classified in the good category. Conclusion: According to the hydrogeochemical results, water-rock interaction and weathering of carbonate minerals are the main factors in changing water chemistry. Since the majority of rocks recharging the aquifer are calcareous, it seems obvious that calcium and bicarbonate ions are dominant in the groundwater. In all samples, except those wells with possible saltwater intrusion, parameters such as salinity risk, SAR, sodium solution, and permeability index were acceptable for irrigation and there was no risk of soil alkalinity. Aquifer recharge by limestone-dolomite and dolomitic rocks in some regions has increased the magnesium ratio of groundwater in about 40% of samples. It has also increased the groundwater hardness. None of the chemical parameters exceeded the permissible limit set by the WHO and Schoeller diagram indicated that the water quality of the study plain was classified in the good category.