نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه حسابداری، دانشکده علوم اجتماعی، دانشگاه بین المللی امام خمینی (ره)، قزوین، ایران

2 گروه اقتصاد، دانشکده اقتصاد، مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

سابقه و هدف:
تحقیق های اخیر، سرمایه اجتماعی را از عامل های مهم و اثرگذار بر بهبود مدیریت م سأله محیط زیستی میدانند چراکه همکاری فعالان مرتبط با مسأله محیط زیست را برای حل مشکلات موجود در حوزه محیط زیست آسان نموده و تقویت می نماید. در این مقاله سعی شده است نقش سرمایه اجتماعی و انسانی در چگونگی اثرگذاری سرمایه گذاری های محیط زیستی بر کیفیت محیط زیست در ایران مورد بررسی قرار گیرد.
مواد و روشها:
در این تحقیق در مرحله اول با استتتفاده از رهیافت کالمن فیلتر و با استتفاده از داده های مربوط به سالهای 1353 تا 1395 روند تغییرات ضریب اثرگذاری سرمایه گذاری محیط زیستی بر کیفیت محیط زیست در ایران به کمک نرم افزار Eviews برآورد شده است. در مرحله دوم در چارچوب روش همگرایی یوهانسون، ضمن بررسی مانایی متغیرها با استفاده از آزمون ریشه واحد دیکی فولر، تعمیم یافته و تعیین تعداد روابط همگرایی با استفاده از آزمون های اثر و حداکثر مقادیر ویژه، روابط همگرایی بلندمدت بین ستتترمایه اجتماعی، سرمایه ان سانی و ضریب اثرگذاری سرمایه گذاری محیط زیستی با استفاده از روش تخمین حداکثر را ست نمایی و به کمک نرم افزار Microfit برآورد گشته است. همچنین از توابع واکنش برای بررسی چگونگی واکنش ضریب اثرگذاری سرمایه محیط زیستی در قبال تغییرات سرمایه اجتماعی و سرمایه انسانی استفاده شده است.
نتایج و بحث:
یافته های حاصل از برآورد ضریب اثرگذاری سرمایه گذاری محیط زیستی بر کیفیت محیط زیست در ایران با استفاده از روش کالمن فیلتر نشان میدهد که تأثیرگذاری سرمایه گذاری محیط زیستی بر کیفیت محیط زیست از یک روند یکسان تبعیت نکرده و نوسان هایی را تجربه نموده است. نتایج تخمین روابط همگرایی بلندمدت گویای آن است که در بلندمدت بین نوسان های این ضریب ازیک طرف و نوسان های سرمایه اجتماعی و سرمایه انسانی از طرف دیگر ارتباط معنی دار وجود دارد. بدین معنی که با افزایش سطح سرمایه اجتماعی در جامعه، ضریب اثرگذاری، سرمایه گذاری محیط زیستی بر کیفیت محیط زیست تقویت شده و در صورت تضعیف سطح و ساختار سرمایه اجتماعی، این ضریب نیز تضعیف میشود. یافته های حاصل از توابع واکنش ضرب های نشان میدهد که اعمال یک شوک در سرمایه اجتماعی و سرمایه انسانی در یک دوره معین منجر به تحریک و واکنش ضریب اثرگذاری سرمایه گذاری محیط زیست بر کیفیت آن و در نهایت شکل گیری سطح تعادلی متفاوتی برای این ضریب در دوره های بعد میگردد. نتایج تخمین بردار تصحیح خطا نیز نشان میدهد که به طور متوسط در هر دوره 26 درصد از عدم تعادل یک دوره در شدت اثرگذاری سرمایه گذاری محیط زیستی بر کیفیت آن در دوره بعد تعدیل میشود.
نتیجه گیری:
مبتنی بر یافته های این تحقیق، اثربخشی و کارآمدی سرمایه گذاری های محیط زیستی در بهبود کیفیت آن، تا اندازه قابل توجهی در گرو دانش افراد جامعه و همچنین اعتماد این افراد نسبت به برنامه ها و فعالیت های تعریف شده در این رابطه و میزان مشارکت مؤثر آنها در تعریف و پیاده سازی این برنامه ها و فعالیت ها دارد. به عبارت دیگر رویکرد یکسویه و از بالا به پایین دولت در حوزه صیانت و حفاظت از محیط زیست، نمیتواند به تنهایی تضمین کننده رسیدن به اهداف تعیین شده در باب مدیریت محیط زیست باشد و الزم است مکانیسم های لازم برای جلب مشارکت و اعتماد افراد و ذینفعان مختلف در همه سطوح درگیر در فرآیند مدیریت محیط زیست، طراحی و مهیا گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Analysis of the response of environmental investment effects on environmental quality regarding social and human capital changes in Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamid Azizmohammadlou 1
  • Mohammad Nabi Shahiki Tash 2

1 Accounting Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Economic Department, Faculty of Economics, Management and Accounting, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction:
Recent studies have identified social capital as an important and influential factor in improving the management of environmental issues as it facilitates and strengthens the cooperation of environmental activists to solve problems in the field of the environment. This paper aimed to examine the role of social and human capital in ways that environmental investments affect the quality of the environment in Iran. 
 Material and methods:
In this research, using the Kalman Filter approach and data from 1974 to 2016, the trend of changes in the effecting coefficient of environmental investment on the quality of the environment in Iran was estimated using the Eviews software. Then, in the framework of the Johansson cointegration method, while examining the stationarity of the variables by augmented Dickey Fuller unit root test and determining the number of convergence relationships using the effects and maximum eigenvalues tests, long-term relationships between social capital, human capital, and effecting coefficient of environmental investment was estimated using Maximum Likelihood method in Microfit software. Impulse response functions were also used to examine how the effecting coefficient of environmental investment on the quality of the environment reacts to changes in social and human capital.
Results and discussion:
The results of estimating the effecting coefficient of environmental investment on the quality of the environment in Iran using the Kalman filter method showed that this coefficient has experienced a fluctuating trend in the studied period. The results of the estimation of long-term cointegration relationships suggest that there was a significant relationship between fluctuations of this coefficient and fluctuations of social and human capital. This means that with the increase in social capital in a society, the effecting coefficient of environmental investment on the quality of the environment will be strengthened and vice versa. The findings of the impulse response functions showed that applying a shock in social capital in a given period leads to stimulation and reaction of the affecting coefficient of environmental investment on the quality of the environment and, ultimately, the formation of a different level of equilibrium for this coefficient in the next periods. The results of the estimation of error correction vectors also indicate that, on average, 26% of each period nonequilibrium in environmental investment impact on the quality of the environment is moderated in the next period.
Conclusion:
Based on the findings of this research, the effectiveness and efficiency of environmental investments in improving the quality of the environment depend, to a large extent, on the knowledge and trust of the community in relation to the programs and activities defined in this regard, as well as the level of their effective participation in the definition and implementation of these programs and activities. In other words, the one-way and top-down approach of the government in the field of environmental protection is not enough to guarantee the achievement of the goals set for environmental management. It is necessary to design and provide the mechanisms required to attract the participation and trust of individuals and different stakeholders involved in the environmental management process at all levels.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Environmental investment
  • Social Capital
  • Human capital
  • Kalman Filter
  • Johnson cointegration method

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