مروري بر اطلاعات پايه، چالش ها و تهديدهاي تالاب ميقان

احمدرضا محرابیان, راضیه غفوری, علی موذنی

چکیده


تهديدهاي گسترده عليه بيوسفر جهاني و کمبود بودجه هاي حفاظتي، شیوه های کارامدتری را جهت اجرای طرح هاي حفاظتي بنا نهاده است. رویکرد جامع نگر به تنوع زیستی رویکرد  رويکرد حفاظت اکوسيستم محور  را تقویت نموده است. حوضه آبريز تالاب ميقان اراک بواسطه اهمیت اکوسیستمی و تهدیدهای گسترده زیست محیطی به عنوان يک نمونه مناسب جهت این ارزیابی انتخاب گردیده است. در حوضه آبريز تالاب ميقان شرايط اکوتوني ناشي از تغيير تدريجي رويشگاههاي هالوفيت به رويشگاههاي غير هالوفيت، رويشگاههاي کويري به کوهستاني و رويشگاههاي خشکي به رويشگاههاي تالابي و نيز حضور رویشگاههاي متباين،  تنوع گونه ها، ريختارها و اجتماعات گیاهی، تنوع بالاي جانوری، پتانسيل ايجاد تالاب بين المللي و قابليت ایجاد منطقه مهم پرندگان، وجود منطقه شکار ممنوع از اهميت اکولوژيکي و اکوتوريستي زيادي برخوردار شده است. به علاوه عدم وجود رودهاي دائمي، خشکسالي، برداشت بي رویه آب هاي زير زميني ، تغيیر شيب هيدرولوژيکي، کاهش کيفت آب هاي زير زميني، آلودگي هاي شيميايي و ميکروبي، برداشت املاح و عدم وجود مطالعات آمايش سرزميني و سبب چالش ها و آسيب جدي در مديريت و حفاظت تالاب شده است. بنابراين ارزيابي و تدوين اطلاعات پايه اين منطقه و اجراي برنامه هاي مديريتي نقش مهمي در حفاظت تالاب دارد.


واژگان کلیدی


تالاب ميقان، اکوسیستم، تهديدها، حفاظت، مديريت

تمام متن:

PDF

منابع و مآخذ مقاله


Noss R F. Ecosystems as conservation targets. Trends Ecol. 1996 11, P.351.

Mehrabian A R. Plant Conservation: Challenges and Methods. Tehran, Iran, Shahid Beheshti University publishing. 2014. [In persian].

Woodward S. Introduction to Biomes. Green Wood Press.1944.

Breckle S W, Walter S. Vegetation of the earth. The ecological systems of the geo-biosphere. Springer, Heidelberg. 2002 P. 527. Christopher (2007) Conservation Letters 4:326-327.

Humboldt A V. Essai sur la géographie plantes accompagné dun tableau physique des régions equinoxials. Levrault, Paris. 1805.

Zohary M. On the geobotanical structure of Iran. Bull. 1973 Res. Counc. Isr. Sect. d Bot. 1 (Suppl.)؛ P. 113.

Takhtajan A. Floristic regions of the World. University of California Press. 1986.

Bailey R G. Ecosystem Geography From Ecoregions to Sites. Springer. 2009.

Omernik J M. Ecoregions - a framework for environmental management, in Davis, W.S., and Simon, T.P., editors, Biological assessment and criteria - tools for water resource planning and decision making. Boca Raton, Florida, Lewis Publishers 1995 49-62.

Keith D A. Assessing and managing risks to ecosystem biodiversity. Austral Ecol. 40, in press [doi:10.1111/aec.12249] 2015.

Nicholson E, Keith D A, Wilcove D S. Assessing the threat status of ecological communities. Conservation Biology 2009 259–274.

Nicholson E, Regan T J, Auld T D. Towards consistency, rigour and compatibility of risk assessments for ecosystems and ecological communities. Austral Ecol 2014 40 in press [doi:10.1111/aec.12148].

Keith D A, Rodr´ıguez J P, Rodr´ıguez-Clark K M. Scientific foundations for an IUCN Red List of Ecosystems. PLoS One 2013 8(5) e62111.

Rodriguez J P, Rodriguez-Clark K, Baillie J E. Establishing IUCN Red List Criteria for threatened ecosystems. Conserv. Biol 2011 25: 21-29.

Rodriıguez J P, Rodr´ıguez-Clark K M, Keith D A. IUCN Red List of ecosystems. S.A.P.I.EN.S [Online] 5.2: http://sapiens.revues.org/1286, (Accessed 2012).

Keith H, Mackey B G, Lindenmayer D B. Re-evaluation of forest biomass carbon stocks and lessons from the world’s most carbon-dense forests. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A 2009 106:11635-11640.

Olson D M. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world: a new map of life on Earth. BioScience 2001 51:933–938.

Rodr´ıguez J P, Balch J K, Rodr´ıguez-Clark K M. Assessing extinction risk in the absence of species-level data: quantitative criteria for terrestrial ecosystems. Biodiversity and Conservation 2007 16:183–209.

Rodr´ıguez J P, Nassar J M, Rodr´ıguez-Clark K M, Zager I, Portillo-Quintero C A, Carrasquel F, Zambrano S. Tropical dry forests in Venezuela: assessing status, threats and future prospects. Environmental Conservation 2008 35:311–318.

Department of Environment and Conservation of New South Wales. 2009. Ecological communities. Department of Environment and Conservation of New South Wales, Sydney. Available from http://www.threatenedspecies.environment.nsw.gov.au/ tsprofile/home_tec.aspx (Accessed March 2010).

DEAT (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism). 2004. The national environmental management: biodiversity act, no. 10. of 2004. DEAT, Pretoria, South Africa. Available from http://www.environment.gov.za (Accessed March 2010).

Reyers B, Rouget M, Jonas Z, Cowling R M, Driver A, Maze K, Desmet PDeveloping products for conservation decisionmaking: lessons from a spatial biodiversity assessment for South Africa. Diversity and Distributions 2007 13:608–619.

SANBI and DEAT. Threatened ecosystems in South Africa: general information/descriptions and maps. Drafts for public comment, South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI). 2009. Pretoria. Available from http://bgis.sanbi.org/ecosystems/project.asp (Accessed July 2010).

Raunio A, Schulman A, Kontula T. Assessment of threatened habitat types in Finland (SY8/2008 Suomen luontotyyppien uhanalaisuus). Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki 2008.

Smith R E, Veldhuis H, Mills G F, Eilers R G, Lelyk G W. Tresstrial Ecozones, Ecoregions, and Ecodistricts of Manitoba. Agriculture and Agrifood Canada. 1998 20.

Hargorove W V. Terrestrial Ecoregions of North America: A conservation assessment. The Quarterly Review of Biology 2001 76(2): 256-257.

Nilsson C N, Grelsson G. The fragility of ecosystems: a review. J. Appl. Ecol 1995 32: 677–692.

Madjnonian H. An Introduction to conservation and management Wetlands. Tehran, Iran, Zaferan Publishing 2011.[In Persian].

Aalaee Taleghani M. Iran Geomorphology. Iran, Ghomes publishing. 2004. [In Persian].

Darvishzadeh A. Iran Geology. Tehran, Iran, Amir Kabir publishing. 2003. [In Persian].

Azadbakht B, Noruzi Gh. Iran Waters Geology. Tehran, Iran, publishing. 2008. [In Persian].

The study office of Iranian water recource management. Guideline on coding and classification Iranian watershed. Iranian company of water recource management. 2012.

The authors of national geography organization of Iran. The geographic encyclopedia of Iran river. National Geography Organizationof Iran. 2004.

Alijani B. Climates of Iran. Payamnoor publishing. 2006.

Kordavani P. Geography of Soils. University of Tehran. 2009 P 487. [In Persian].

Kordavani P. Soil Conservation. University of Tehran. 2009 P 264. [In Persian].

ESRI. ArcView Gis Ver. 3.2a. Environmental Systems Research Institute Inc., California. 2000.

Zehtabian Gh, Ghadimi M, Tavili A, Bakhshi J. Effect of underground water properties on distribution of vegetation types in marginal lands of Meighan playa-Arak province. Iranian journal of Range and desert Research؛ 2010؛ 17 (3): 353-361. [In Persian].

Ghadimi, M. Effect of soil physicochemical factors on the plant distribution in the Meyghan playa margin. The first national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran wetland desert. Arak, Iran, Forests and Pastures Organization 2010. [In Persian].

Abdi L, Rahim Pour Bonab H, Usefi Rad M. Study the quality and chemical evolution of Meyghan playa brine in connection with inflow area. The First National Conference on Combating Desertification and Sustainable development of Iran wetland desert. Arak, Iran, Forests and Pastures Organization 2010. [In Persian].

Yamani M, Asadian KH. Geomorphological evidence on Tabrae and Talkhab fault performance in Meyghan subsidence. Geographical Research 2004 47: 111-121. [In Persian].

Klinsli D. Iran deserts and their geomorphologic and paleoclimatologic properties. Translated with Pashaee A. Tehran, Iran, National Geography Organization of Iran. 2002. [In Persian].

Akhani H. A Contribution on the vegetation and flora of Kavire-Meyghan (NE, Arak). Tehran, Iran, Tehran University Science Journal 1989 18: 75-84. [In Persian].

Frey W, Probst W . A synopsis of the vegetation of Iran. In: K¨urschner H, ed. Contribution of the Vegetation of Southwest Asia. Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, Wiesbaden. 1986.

Akhani H, Ghorbanli M. A contribution to the halophytic vegetable and flora of Iran. In: H. Leith and A. A. Al Masoom (eds). Towards the Rational Use of High Salinity Tolerant Plants 1993 27: 35-44.

‌[46] Bailey R. Ecosystem Geography. Springer. 2009.

Djamali M., Akhani H, Khoshravesh R. Anderieu-Ponel., Ponel, P. & Brewer, S. Application of the Global Bioclimatic Classification to Iran: implications for understanding the modern vegetation and biogeography, Ecologia mediterranea 2011 37 (1): 91-114.

Toranj Zar H, Zahedi GH, Jafari M, Zahedipour H. The relationship between plant communities and soil chemical and physical parameters (Arak Meyghan wetland case study). The second national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran desert wetland, Iran, Arak, Arak Azad University 2011. [In Persian].

Takhtajan A. Floristic regions of the World, University of California Press. 1986.

Madjnonian H, Kiabi B, Danesh M. Iran Animal Geography. Tehran, Iran, publishing. 2005. [In Persian].

Mirdavoudi Akhavan HR, Zahedi pour H. Determination of suitable species diversity Model for Meyghan playa plant association and effect of some ecological factors on diversity change. Pajouhesh & Sazandegi 2005 68: 56-65, [In Persian].

Farmahini Farahani A, Mirdavoodi H, Godarzi G. Assessment the extend of desertification in Meyghan Watershed: vegetation approach.1-4. 2 th conference on desertification. Arak, Azad University 2010. [In Persian].

Ansari A. The census of winter section of aquatic migrant birds of Meygham Wetland. 2006. [In Persian].

Tohidifar M, Bani Asad S, Cheraghi S, Poorhedayat M. Meyghan. The society of predator birds of Meyghan Wetlands. The first national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran wetland desert. Arak, Iran, Forests and Pastures Organization 2010. [In Persian].

Ranjbar F, Ahmadloo F, Goodarzi GH, Zahedipour H. Flora, life form and geographic distribution in Meyghan desert of Arak. The first national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran wetland desert. Arak, Iran, Forests and Pastures Organization 2010. [In Persian].

Hosseini G, Shams Esfand Abad B, Ghiasi S, Barati A. The study of Annual changes of diversity of aquatic birds in Meyghan Wetland. The third national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran wetland desert 2012. [In Persian].

Ansari A. The study of environmental conditions in desertic Wetland of Meghan.The second national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran desert wetland, Iran, Arak, Arak Azad University 2011. [In Persian].

Ansari A, Jalalvandi H. Sustainable management of Meyghan Wetland based on wisely use .The first national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran wetland desert. Arak, Iran, Forests and Pastures Organization 2010. [In Persian].

Ansari A. The study of Environmental condition in Forbidden Hunting. The first national conference of Irans Wetland. Arak, Iran, Forests and Pastures Organization 2008. [In Persian].

Sadoogh M B, Ansari A. Meyghan as an international wetland and an important birds area 2007 45: 32-37. [In Persian].

Ansari A, Riazee B, Karami M, Sadoogh MB. Habitat assessment of Dorna overwintering in Meyghan Wetland. .The first national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran wetland desert. Arak, Iran, Forests and Pastures Organization 2010. [In Persian].

Soleimani S, Ansari A, Haji Hosseini M, Samaee A. Tourism potential in desert wetland (Arak Meyghan wetland forbidden area). The second national conference in conservation and environmental planning 2013. [In Persian].

Samaee A, Ansari A, Haji Hosseini M, Soleimani S. Sustainable tourism in wetlands emphasis on Arak Meyghan wetland. National conference in tourism development emphasis on national parks and wetlands with focus on Golestan province 2013. [In Persian].

Astani S, Sobhan Ardakani S, Badami B. Tourism and Ecotourism as a hidden wealth in wetlands and desert areas (Meyghan wetland case study). The second national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran desert wetland, Iran, Arak, Arak Azad University 2011. [In Persian].

Moradi M. The drought effects on ground steams to Meyghan Wetland and necessity of long plan in order to sustainable development. First National Conference on Sustainable Environment and Development. Markazi province environment network, Chamber of commerce, Industry, Mines and Arak Agriculture 2014. [In Persian].

Haji Hosseini M, Ansari A, Soleimani S, Samaee A. Ecological management in Meyghan wetland of Arak. The First National Conference on Sustainable Environment and Development. Markazi province environment network, Chamber of commerce, Industry, Mines and Arak Agriculture 2014. [In Persian].

Ghiabi P, Nayebi M, Mohamadi A. The study of recent droughts effect on the dryness of Meyghan wetland. The second national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran desert wetland, Iran, Arak, Arak Azad University 2011. [In Persian].

Mohamadi M, Moradi H R. The zoning of drought in underground water of Meyghan Watershed 2006 85: 56-59. [In Persian].

Farahani F Z. Critical condition of underground water in plains of Markazi province with emphasis on Meyghan wetland. The First National Conference on Sustainable Environment and Development. Markazi province environment network, Chamber of commerce, Industry, Mines and Arak Agriculture 2014. [In Persian].

Fattahi M, Zolfaghari M, Nezam Abadi B. The role of Meyghan wetland on dust phenomena in Arak. The second national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran desert wetland, Iran, Arak, Arak Azad University 2011. [In Persian].

Banejad H, Javidi M, Moradi M. The penetration of salty water of Meyghan Wetlands arising from change in hydrologic gradient of underground waters and contamination of water resources in W. Myghan. The First National Conference of wetland and water ecosystems conservation. Hamedan, Hegmataneh Environmental Assessment Community 2013. [In Persian].

.

Farmahini Farahani A, Darvish M. Assessment and generating desertification map using FAQ and UNEP method in Kavire-e-Meighan basin. Iranian journal of Range and Desert Research؛ 2012؛ 19(4): 547-556 .[In Persian].

Ghahroodi Tali M, Mirzakhani B, Asgari A. Desertification in Iran wetland (case study: Meyghan wetland). Geography and Environmental hazards 2012 4: 97-111. [In Persian].

Rafiee karahroodi Z, Vafaee Shushtari R, Daee R, Kalangari E. The preliminary study on impacts of urban sewage to Meyghan Wetlands and their impacts on Population density of Arthropods. The first national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran wetland desert. Arak, Iran, Forests and Pastures Organization 2010. [In Persian].

Shayesteh Far A, Hamta A, Shirazi F, Azimi R. Ciliophora from Ghareh-Kahriz river (Khoshk) Markazi province Iran. Iran Biology Journal؛ 2012؛25 (3): 389-395. [In Persian].

Haji Hosseini M, Varvani J, Abdi N. A comparison of Heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Al, Ni) concentration in surface sediments Meyghan wetland. Second National Conference of Environment conservation and planning, Hamedan 2013. [In Persian].

Khanjani M, Ghadimi Arous Mahaleh F, Hashemi A. The effective geological phenomenon on desertification and extension the Meyghan Wetland. The second national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran desert wetland, Iran, Arak, Arak Azad University 2011. [In Persian].

Azimi R, Moradian R, Bolhassani A. The first national conference on combating desertification and sustainable development of Iran wetland desert. Arak, Iran, Forests and Pastures Organization 2010. [In Persian].


ارجاعات

  • در حال حاضر ارجاعی نیست.