مروری بر کارایی گیاهان در تعدیل اثرات و سازگاری با تغییرات اقلیمی در محیط‌های شهری با تأکید بر صفات عملکردی گیاهان

الهام رجب بیگی, رامین عرفانیان سلیم, سید محمد جعفری

چکیده


اقلیم کرة زمین می‌تواند به‌طور طبیعی یا تحت تأثیر فعالیت‌های انسانی تغییر کند. انسان مدرن با استفاده از سوخت‌های فسیلی و تولید گازهای گلخانه‌ای به این تغییرات اقلیمی دامن زده و سرعت گرمایش جهانی را تسریع کرده است. برای مواجهه با تغییرات اقلیمی دو راهبرد اصلی سازگار شدن و تعدیل شدت را می‌توان اختیار کرد. در بین موجودات زنده، گیاهان تأثیرات انکار­ناپذیری بر اقلیم داشته و به‌ویژه در محیط‌های شهری دارای اثرات متعادل‌کنندة متعددی می‌باشند. از جمله کارکردهای گیاهان یا فضای سبز شهری عبارتند از خنک‌سازی، تصفیة هوا، افزایش بازده مصرف انرژی، جذب امواج فرابنفش، کاهش جریانات آبی مخرب سطحی، جلوگیری از فرسایش خاک، کاهش دادن سرعت باد، میزان گرد و غبار و نیز آلودگی‌های شیمیایی، کارآمدی گیاهان در ارتباط با هرکدام از این کاکردها تابعی از صفات عملکردی ریختی و فیزیولوژیک آن‌ها می‌باشد. این مقاله مرور نسبتاً جامعی در مورد ارتباط بین کارکردهای مذکور، صفات عملکردی گیاهان و دورنمای مدیریت اثرات نوسانات اقلیمی در مناطق شهری ارائه می‌دهد. صفات عملکردی نظیر مورفولوژی سطح برگ، اندازه و ارتفاع گیاه، تراکم و الگوی پراکنشی گیاهان، شکل تاج‌پوش و شاخه‌بندی گیاه و نیز ویژگی‌های شکل رویشی و فیزیولوژیک گیاه از اهمیت بالایی در موفقیت گیاهان در رابطه با تعدیل­کنندگی یا کاهش تغییرات اقلیمی برخوردار می‌باشند. درنظرگرفتن دورنمای محیط‌های شهری در سایة تغییرات اقلیمی و جایگزینی گونه‌های شهری بر پایة صفات عملکردی به‌عنوان یکی از اولویت‌های مدیریت مناطق شهری از جمله ابرشهر تهران پیشنهاد می‌گردد.


واژگان کلیدی


تغییرات اقلیمی، محیط‌های شهری، صفات عملکردی گیاهان، تعدیل شدت، سازگارشدن

تمام متن:

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