تاثیر چرای حیات وحش (آهو) و دام اهلی (گوسفند و بز) بر شاخص های تنوع و غنای گونه ای و ترکیب گیاهی در مراتع استپی مهریز

سمیرا حسین جعفری, محمدرضا طاطیان, رضا تمرتاش, علی اکبر کریمیان

چکیده


در ارزیابی اثر چرا بر پوشش گیاهی در نظر گرفتن شاخص های تنوع، غنا، یکنواختی، تعداد و ترکیب گیاهی از اهمیت ویژه ای برخوردار می باشد زیرا حساسیت آنها در پاسخ به گرادیان چرا و نوع دام چرا کننده متفاوت می باشد، لذا هدف تحقیق مقایسه شاخص های مذکور بین دو سایت چرایی حیات وحش و دام اهلی در مراتع استپی مهریز بود. نمونه برداری در دو منطقه مذکور در اردیبهشت ماه سال 1391، به طور تصادفی سیستماتیک انجام شد (10 ترانسکت 100 متری و 3 پلات 2 متر مربعی در هر منطقه). در داخل هر پلات و در امتداد هر ترانسکت، نام گونه های گیاهی، تیره های گیاهی، طول عمر و درصد پوشش به تفکیک گونه تعیین گردید. در نهایت مقایسه میان داده ها در دو منطقه با استفاده از آزمون t انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که در سایت چرایی آهو، درصد پوشش گونه های Colchicum kotschyi، Iris songarica (05/0p<) و گونه Stachys inflata (01/0p<) افزایش معنی دار داشته و گونه های Artemisia sieberi، Stipa barbata (01/0p<) و گونه Scorzonera sp. (05/0p<) دارای کاهش معنیدار بوده است. همچنین نتایج آنالیز آماری شاخص های تنوع و غنا نشان داد که چرای آهو برای دو شاخص تنوع گیاهی شامل شانون-وینر و سیمپسون و همچنین شاخص یکنواختی افزایش معنی دار را به همراه داشته است (01/0p<) و شاخص های غنای مارگالف و منهینیک تغییر معنی داری را در این ارتباط نشان ندادند.


واژگان کلیدی


ترکیب گیاهی، تنوع، غنا، دام اهلی، حیات وحش، مراتع استپی

تمام متن:

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