palette
بررسی منشأ و اثرات بهداشتی آئروسل های اتمسفری در شهر تهران
بلال اروجی, عیسی سلگی, اصغر صدیق زاده

چکیده
سابقه و هدف: با وجود پیشرفت های اخیر در افزایش کیفیت هوا، بخش عمدهای از جمعیت در مناطق شهری ساکن هستند که
استانداردهای بین المللی را رعایت نکرده و دستورالعمل های سازمان بهداشت جهانی را درباره بهداشت عمومی رعایت نمی کنند. در یک دهه
اخیر، تحقیقات نشان داده است که آلودگی هوا به ذرات PM نه تنها در مرگومیر، بلکه در بروز بسیاری از بیماریها نقش داشته و پیامدهای
منفی زیادی را بدنبال دارد.
مواد و روش ها: ابتدا نتایج مطالعات صورت گرفته در این زمینه را مورد ارزیابی و تحلیل قرار داده و در ادامه با نمونه برداری از ذرات
اتمسفری و بررسی آنها با استفاده از تکنیک SEM به شناخت ماهیت ظاهری و ترکیب شیمیایی آنها پرداخته شد. از اینرو با استفاده از
9 متر مکعب بر دقیقه را از فیلتر شیشه ای عبور دادیم. سپس نمونه / یک نمونه بردار حجم بالا، به مدت 24 ساعت حجم هوای با مقدار 5
فیلتر تهیه شده در سازمان انرژی اتمی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت.
نتایج و بحث: نتایج بررسی نشان داده است که هیچ مرز مشخصی برای غلظت ذرات در محیط وجود ندارد و ذرات نزدیک به .52PM در
حد غلظت پس زمینه نیز با تاثیرات بر سلامتی رابطه خطی خواهد داشت. با توجه به حجم تاثیرات مضر بر سلامتی تلاش های زیادی برای
شناخت PM در محیط صورت گرفته است. این تحقیقات به صورت اپیدمیولوژیکی شامل شناخت سمیت ذرات، مسیرهای مکانیکی انتقال
ذرات و تعیین چگونگی وضع قوانین برای ایجاد هوای پاک بوده اند. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از بررسی مورفولوژی و ترکیب شیمیایی ذرات
اتمسفری منشأ درون شهری ذرات محرز بوده و منابع متحرک مهم ترین تولید کننده های این ذرات در شهر تهران هستند.
نتیجه گیری: بهبود کیفیت هوا چالش مهمی در سالهای اخیر بوده که بدون راهحل نیست. انتقال شواهد و مدارک علمی صحیح، واقع بینانه
و موثر بدون شک به شکل بالقوه میتواند در کاهش آلودگی هوا نقش داشته باشد.
واژگان کلیدی
سمیت PM ، آگاهی عمومی، آئروسل ها، آلودگی، کیفیت هوا.

منابع و مآخذ مقاله

Anderson, H.R., Armstrong, B., Hajat, S., Harrison, R., Monk, V., Poloniecki, J., Timmis, A. and Wilkinson, P., 2010. Air pollution and activation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in London. Epidemiology, 21, 405–413.

Aphekom. 2011. Improving knowledge and communication for decision making on air pollution and health in Europe. Summary report of the Aphekom project 2008–2011. http://www.endseurope.com/docs/110302b.pdf. Accessed 11 February 2015.

Atkinson, R.W., Fuller, G.W., Anderson, H. R., Harrison, R.M. and Armstrong, B., 2010. Urban ambient particle metrics and health:Atime-series analysis.Epidemiology. 21, 501–511.

Bayer-Oglesby, L., Grize, L., Gassner, M., Takken-Sahli, K., Sennhauser, F.H., Neu, U., et al., 2005. Decline of ambient air pollution levels and improved respiratory health in Swiss children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 113, 1632–1637.

Behndig, A.F., Mudway, I.S., Brown, J.L., Stenfors, N., Heleday, R., Duggan, S.T., et al., 2006. Airway antioxidant and inflammatory responses to diesel exhaust exposure in healthy humans. European Respiratory Journal. 27, 359–365.

Bell, M. L. and Davis, D.L., 2001. Reassessment of the lethal London fog of 1952: Novel indicators of acute and chronic consequences of acute exposure to air pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 109, 389–394.

Bickerstaff, K. and Walker, G., 2001. Public understandings of air pollution: The ‘localisation’ of environmental risk. Global Environmental Change, 11(2), 133–145.

Bind, M.A., Baccarelli, A., Zanobetti, A., Tarantini, L., Suh, H., Vokonas, P., et al., 2012. Air pollution and markers of coagulation, inflammation, and endothelial function: Associations and epigene-environment interactions in an elderly cohort. Epidemiology. 23, 332–340.

Brook, R.D., Rajagopalan, S., Pope, C. A., I.I.I., Brook, J.R., Bhatnagar, A., Diez-Roux, A. V., et al., 2010. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease. An update to the Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 121, 2331–2378.

Brunekreef, B. and Forsberg, B., 2005. Epidemiological evidence of effects of coarse airborne particles on health. European Respiratory Journal. 26, 309–318.

Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP). 2010. The mortality effects of long-term exposure to particulate air pollution in the United Kingdom. https://www.gov.uk/

government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/304641/COMEAP_mortality_ effects_of

_long_term_exposure.pdf. Accessed 10 February 2010.

Coogan, P.F., White, L.F., Jerrett, M., Brook, R.D., Su, J.G., Seto, E., et al., 2012. Air pollution and incidence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in black women living in Los Angeles. Circulation. 125, 767–772.

Crouse, D.L., Peters, P.A., van Donkelaar, A., Goldberg, M.S., Villeneuve, P.J., Brion, O., et al., 2012. Risk of nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in relation to longterm exposure to low concentrations of fine particulate matter: A Canadian national-level cohort study. Environmental

Health Perspectives. 120, 708–714.

Delfino, R.J., Tjoa, T., Gillen, D.L., Staimer, N., Polidori, A., Arhami, M., et al., 2010. Traffic-related air pollution and blood pressure in elderly subjects with coronary artery disease. Epidemiology. 21, 396–404.

Dockery, D.W., Pope, C.A., Xu, X., Spengler, J.D., Ware, J.H., Fay, M.E., et al. 1993. An association between air pollution and mortality in six U.S. cities. New England Journal of Medicine. 329, 1753–1759.

Downs, S.H., Schindler, C., Liu, L.J., Keidel, D., Bayer- Oglesby, L., Brutsche, M.H., et al., 2007. Reduced exposure to PM10 and attenuated age-related decline in lung function. New England Journal of Medicine. 357, 2338–2347.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)., 2009. Integrated science assessment for particulate matter (final report). Washington, DC: United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://cfpub.epa.gov/ncea/cfm/recordisplay.cfm? deid=216546#Download. Accessed 15 February 2015.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 2013. EPA and NIH announce the winning team in my air, my health challenge/ winners developed a low cost, real time personal digital device that measures health effects of harmful air pollution. http://blog.epa.gov/science/2013/06/visualizing-the-invisiblewith- the-my-air-my-health-challenge-

winners/. Accessed 12 February 2015.

European Commission (EC). 2013. Attitudes of Europeans towards air quality. http://ec.europa.eu

/public_opinion/ flash/fl_360_en.pdf. Accessed 17 February 2015.

European Environment Agency (EEA). 2014. Air quality in Europe. http://www.eea.europa.eu/

publications/airquality-in-europe-2014. Accessed 9 February 2015.

Filleul, L., Rondeau, V., Vandentorren, S., Le Moual, N., Cantagrel, A., Annesi-Maesano, I., et al., 2005. Twenty five year mortality and air pollution: Results from the French PAARC survey. Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 62, 453–460.

Gasser, M., Riediker, M., Mueller, L., Perrenoud, A., Blank, F., Gehr, P., et al., 2009. Toxic effects of brake wear particles on epithelial lung cells in vitro. Particle and Fibre Toxicology. 6, 30.

Gottipolu, R.R., Landa, E.R., Schladweiler, M.C., McGee, J.K., Ledbetter, A.D., Richards, J.H., et al., 2008. Cardiopulmonary responses of intratracheally instilled tire particles and constituent metal components. Inhalation Toxicology. 20, 473–484.

Gowers, A.M., Cullinan, P., Ayres, J.G., Anderson, H.R., Strachan, D.P., Holgate, S.T., et al., 2012. Does outdoor air pollution induce new cases of asthma? Biological plausibility and evidence. Respirology. 17, 887–898.

Graff, D.W., Cascio, W.E., Rappold, A., Zhou, H., Huang, Y.C., Devlin, R.B., et al., 2009. Exposure to concentrated coarse air pollution particles causes mild cardiopulmonary effects in healthy young adults. Environmental Health Perspectives. 117, 1089–1094.

Guxens, M. and Sunyer, J., 2012. A review of epidemiological studies on neuropsychological effects of air pollution. Swiss Medical Weekly, 141, w13322.

Health Effects Institute (HEI) National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Review Panel. 2013a. NPACT Initiative. http://pubs.healtheffects.org/

getfile.php?u=934. Accessed 16 February 2015.

Health Effects Institute (HEI) Panel on the Health Effects of Traffic-Related Air Pollution. Special Report 17. 2010. Traffic-related air pollution: a critical review of the literature on emissions, exposure and health effects. http:// pubs.healtheffects.org/getfile.php?u=553. Accessed 21 February 2015.

Health Effects Institute (HEI) Review Panel on Ultrafine Particles. 2013b. Understanding the health effects of ambient ultrafine particles. http://pubs.healtheffects.org/getfile. php?u=893. Accessed 16 February 2015.

Hildebrandt, K., Ru¨ckerl, R., Koenig, W., Schneider, A., Pitz, M., Heinrich, J., et al., 2009. Short-term effects of air pollution: A panel study of blood markers in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Particle and Fibre Toxicology. 6, 25.

Hoek, G., Brunekreef, B., Goldbohm, S., Fischer, P. and van den Brandt, P.A., 2002. Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: A cohort study. The Lancet. 360, 1203–1209.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2012. Diesel engine exhaust carcinogenic. http://www.iarc.fr/en/ media-centre/pr/2012/pdfs/

pr213_E.pdf. Accessed 10 February 2015.

IOM. 2006. Comparing estimated risks for air pollution with risks for other health effects. http://www.iom-world.org/ pubs/IOM_TM0601

.pdf. Accessed 10 February 2015.

Ito, K., Mathes, R., Ross, Z., Na´das, A., Thurston, G. andMatte, T., 2011. Fine particulate matter constituents associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations and mortality in New York City. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119, 467–473.

Janssen, N. A., Brunekreef, B., van Vliet, P., Aarts, F., Meliefste, K., Harssema, H., et al., 2003. The relationship between air pollution from heavy traffic and allergic sensitization, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and respiratory symptoms in Dutch schoolchildren. Environmental Health Perspectives. 111, 1512–1518.

Katsouyanni, K., Touloumi, G., Samoli, E., Gryparis, A., Le Tertre, A., Monopolis, Y., et al., 2001. Confounding and effect modification in the short-term effects of ambient particles on total mortality: results from 29 European cities within the APHEA2 project. Epidemiology. 12, 521–531.

Kelly, J.F., Fussell, C.J., 2015. Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk. Environ Geochem Health. 37, 631–649.

Kelly, F. J. and Fussell, J.C., 2012. Size, source and chemical composition as determinants of toxicity attributable to ambient particular matter. Atmospheric Environment. 60, 504–526.

Kim, J.J., Huen, K., Adams, S., Smorodinsky, S., Hoats, A., Malig, B., et al., 2008. Residential traffic and children’s respiratory health. Environmental Health Perspectives. 116, 1274–1279.

Kim, S.Y., Peel, J.L., Hannigan, M.P., Dutton, S.J., Sheppard, L., Clark, M.L., et al., 2012. The temporal lag structure of short-term associations of fine particulate matter chemical constituents and cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations. Environmental Health Perspectives. 120, 1094–1099.

Kramer, U., Herder, C., Sugiri, D., Strassburger, K., Schikowski, T., Ranft, U., et al., 2010. Traffic-related air pollution and incident type 2 diabetes: Results from the SALIA cohort study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 118, 1273–1279.

Krewski, D., Jerrett, M., Burnett, R.T., Ma, R., Hughes, E., Shi, Y., et al., 2009. Extended follow-up and spatial analysis of the American Cancer Society study linking particulate air pollution and mortality. Research Report. (Health Effects Institute). 140, 5–114.

Kreyling, W.G., Hirn, S. and Schleh, C., 2010. Nanoparticles in the lung. Nature Biotechnology.

Mantecca, P., Sancini, G., Moschini, E., Farina, F., Gualtieri, M., Rohr, A., et al., 2009. Lung toxicity induced by intratracheal instillation of size-fractionated tire particles. Toxicology Letters. 189, 206–214.

Meister, K., Johansson, C. and Forsberg, B., 2012. Estimated short-term effects of coarse particles on daily mortality in Stockholm, Sweden. Environmental Health Perspectives. 120, 431–436.

Mills, N.L., Tornqvist, H., Gonzalez, M.C., Vink, E., Robinson, S.D., So¨derberg, S., et al., 2007. Ischemic and thrombotic effects of dilute diesel-exhaust inhalation in men with coronary heart disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 357, 1075–1082.

Mills, N.L., Tornqvist, H., Robinson, S.D., Gonzalez, M., Darnley, K., MacNee, W., et al., 2005. Diesel exhaust inhalation causes vascular dysfunction and impaired endogenous fibrinolysis. Circulation. 112, 3930–3936.

Mudway, I.S., Stenfors, N., Duggan, S.T., Roxborough, H., Zielinski, H., Marklund, S.L., et al., 2004. An in vitro and in vivo investigation of the effects of diesel exhaust on human airway lining fluid antioxidants. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 423, 200–212.

Naess, Ø., Nafstad, P., Aamodt, G., Claussen, B. and Rosland, P., 2007. Relation between concentration of air pollution and cause-specific mortality: Four-year exposures to nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter pollutants in 470 neighborhoods in Oslo, Norway. American Journal of Epidemiology. 165, 435–443.

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and development). 2014. The cost of air pollution. Health impacts of road transport. http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset- Management/oecd/environment/the-cost-of-air-pollution_ 9789264210448-en#page1. Accessed 9 February 2015.

Ostro, B., Broadwin, R., Green, S., Feng, W.Y. and Lipsett, M., 2006. Fine particulate air pollution and mortality in nine California counties: Results from CALFINE. Environmental Health Perspectives. 114, 29–33.

Ostro, B., Lipsett, M., Reynolds, P., Goldberg, D., Hertz, A., Garcia, C., et al., 2010. Long-term exposure to constituents of fine particulate air pollution and mortality: Results from the California Teachers Study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 118, 363–369.

Peng, R.D., Chang, H.H., Bell, M.L., McDermott, A., Zeger, S.L., Samet, J.M., et al., 2008. Coarse particulate matter air pollution and hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases among Medicare patients. Journal of the American Medical Association. 299, 2172–2179.

Peretz, A., Peck, E.C., Bammler, T.K., Beyer, R.P., Sullivan, J.H., Trenga, C.A., et al., 2007. Diesel exhaust inhalation and assessment of peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene transcription effects: An exploratory study of healthy human volunteers. Inhalation Toxicology. 19, 1107–1119.

Pope, C.A., Ezzati, M. and Dockery, D.W., 2009. Fineparticulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 360(4), 376–386.

Pourazar, J., Frew, A.J., Blomberg, A., Helleday, R., Kelly, F.J., Wilson, S., et al., 2004. Diesel exhaust exposure enhances the expression of IL-13 in the bronchial epithelium of healthy subjects. Respiratory Medicine. 98, 821–825.

Pourazar, J., Mudway, I.S., Samet, J.M., Helleday, R., Blomberg, A., Wilson, S.J., et al., 2005. Diesel exhaust activates redox-sensitive transcription factors and kinases in human airways. American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology. 289, L724–L730.

Proietti, E., Roosli, M., Frey, U. and Latzin, P., 2013. Air pollution during pregnancy and neonatal outcome: A review. Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery. 26, 9–23.

Public Health England (PHE). 2014. Estimating local mortality burdens associated with particulate air pollution.https://www. gov.uk/government/

uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/332854/PHE_CRCE_010.pdf. Accessed 10 February 2015.

Puett, R.C., Hart, J.E., Schwartz, J., Hu, F.B., Liese, A.D. and Laden, F., 2011a. Are particulate matter exposures associated with risk of type 2 diabetes? Environmental Health Perspectives. 119, 384–389.

Puett, R.C., Hart, J.E., Suh, H., Mittleman, M., Laden, F., et al., 2011b. Particulate matter exposures, mortality, and cardiovascular disease in the health professionals follow-up study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 119, 1130–1135.

Puett, R.C., Hart, J.E., Yanosky, J.D., Paciorek, C., Schwartz, J., Suh, H., et al., 2009. Chronic fine and coarse particulate exposure, mortality, and coronary heart disease in the Nurses’ Health Study. Environmental Health Perspectives. 117, 1697–1701.

Qiu, H., Yu, I.T., Tian, L., Wang, X., Tse, L.A., Tam, W., et al., 2012. Effects of coarse particulate matter on emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases: A time-series analysis in Hong Kong. Environmental Health Perspectives. 120, 572–576.

Quality of urban air review group. 1996. Airborne particulate matter in the UK. http://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/assets/ documents/reports/empire/quarg/quarg_11.pdf. Accessed 18 February 2015.

Raaschou-Nielsen, O., Sørensen, M., Ketzel, M., Hertel, O., Loft, S., Tjønneland, A., et al., 2013. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and diabetes-associated mortality: A cohort study. Diabetologia. 56, 36–46.

Ranft, U., Schikowski, T., Sugiri, D., Krutmann, J., Kra¨mer, U., et al., 2009. Long-term exposure to traffic-related particulate matter impairs cognitive function in the elderly. Environmental Research. 109, 1004–1011.

Riediker, M., Devlin, R.B., Griggs, T. R., Herbst, M.C., Bromberg, P.A., Williams, R.W., et al., 2004. Cardiovascular effects in patrol officers are associated with fine particulate matter from brake wear and engine emissions. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 1, 2.

Ritz, B. and Wilhelm, M., 2008. Ambient air pollution and adverse birth outcomes: methodologic issues in an emerging field. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology. 102, 182–190.

Ruckerl, R., Schneider, A., Breitner, S., Cyrys, J., Peters, A., et al., 2011. Health effects of particulate air pollution: A review of epidemiological evidence. Inhalation Toxicology. 23, 555–592.

Salvi, S.S., Blomberg, A., Rudell, B., Kelly, F., Sandstrom, T., Holgate, S. T., et al., 1999. Acute inflammatory responses in the airways and peripheral blood after short-term exposure to diesel exhaust in healthy human volunteers. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 159, 702–709.

Salvi, S.S., Nordenhall, C., Blomberg, A., Rudell, B., Pourazar, J., Kelly, F.J., et al., 2000. Acute exposure to diesel exhaust increases IL-8 and GRO-a production in healthy human airways. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 161, 550–557.

Sapkota, A., Chelikowsky, A.P., Nachman, K.E., Cohen, A.J., Ritz, B., et al., 2012. Exposure to particulate matter and adverse birth outcomes: A comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health. 5, 369–381.

Schindler, C., Keidel, D., Gerbase, M.W., Zemp, E., Bettschart, R., Bra¨ndli, O., et al., 2009. Improvements in PM10 exposure and reduced rates of respiratory symptoms in a cohort of Swiss adults (SAPALDIA). American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 179, 579–587.

Schwartz, J. and Dockery, D.W., 1992. Increased mortality in Philadelphia associated with daily air pollution concentrations. American Review of Respiratory Diseases, 145(3), 600–604.

Son, J.Y., Lee, J.T., Kim, K.H., Jung, K. and Bell, M.L., 2012. Characterization of fine particulate matter and associations between particulate chemical constituents and mortality in Seoul, Korea. Environmental Health Perspectives. 120 872–878.

Stenfors, N., Nordenhall, C., Salvi, S.S., Mudway, I., So¨derberg, M., Blomberg, A., et al., 2004. Different airway inflammatory responses in asthmatic and healthy humans exposed to diesel. European Respiratory Journal. 23, 82–86.

Thompson, R.C., Allam, A.H., Lombardi, G.P., Wann, L.S., Sutherland, M.L., Sutherland, J.D., et al., 2013. Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: The Horus study of four ancient populations. The Lancet. 381, 1211–1222.

Tornqvist, H., Mills, N.L., Gonzalez, M., Miller, M.R., Robinson, S.D., Megson, I.L., et al., 2007. Persistent endothelial dysfunction in humans after diesel exhaust inhalation. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 176, 395–400.

Van der Gon, H.A., Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E., Gehrig, R., Gustafsson, M., Janssen, N., Harrison, R. M., et al., 2013. The policy relevance of wear emissions from road transport, now and in the future—an international workshop report and consensus statement. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association. 63, 136–149.

Wegesser, T.C., Pinkerton, K. E. and Last, J.A., 2009. California wildfires of 2008: Coarse and fine particulate matter toxicity. Environmental Health Perspectives. 117, 893–897.

Weichenthal, S., 2012. Selected physiological effects of ultrafine particles in acute cardiovascular morbidity. Environmental Research. 115, 26–36.

Wilkins, E.T., 1954. Air pollution aspects of the London fog of December 1952. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 80, 267–271.

World Health Organisation (WHO). 2014. Burden of disease from air pollution. http://www.who.int

/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/FINAL_HAP_AAP_BoD_24March 2014.pdf?ua=1. Accessed 9 February 2015.

World Health Organisation (WHO) Regional Office for Europe. 2012. Health effects of black carbon. http://www.euro. who.int/__data/assets/

pdf_file/0004/162535/e96541.pdf? ua=1. Accessed 16 February 2015.

World Health Organisation (WHO) Regional Office for Europe. 2013a. Review of evidence on health aspects of air pollution— REVIHAAP project, technical report. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/ assets/pdf_file/0004/193108/REVI HAAP-Final-technical-report-final-version.pdf? ua=1. Accessed 16 February 2015.

World Health Organisation (WHO) Regional Office for Europe. 2013b. Health effects of particulate matter: Policy implications for countries in Eastern Europe, Caucasus and central Asia. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_ file/0006/189051/Health-effects-of-particulate-matterfinal- Eng.pdf. Accessed 9 February 2015.

Yanosky, J.D., Tonne, C.C., Beevers, S.D., Wilkinson, P. and Kelly, F.J., 2012. Modeling exposures to the oxidative potential of PM10. Environmental Science and Technology. 46, 7612–7620.

Zanobetti, A. and Schwartz, J., 2009. The effect of fine and coarse particulate air pollution on mortality: A national analysis. Environmental Health Perspectives. 117, 898–903.

Zimmerman, M.R., Yeatman, G.W. and Spinz, H.,1971. Examination of an Aleutian mummy. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 47, 80–103.

Zweifel, L., Boni, T. and Ruhli, F.J., 2009. Evidence-based palaeopathology: Meta-analysis of PubMed-listed scientific studies on ancient Egyptian mummies. Journal of Comparative Human Biology. 60, 405–427.


ارجاعات
  • در حال حاضر ارجاعی نیست.