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توان گیاه‌پالایی دو گونه خردل اتیوپی (Brassica carinata) و خردل هندی (Brassica juncea) در خاک آلوده به کادمیوم
زهرا سلیمان نژاد, احمد عبدل زاده, حمیدرضا صادقی پور

چکیده

سابقه و هدف: فلزات سنگین از جمله مهم‌ترین آلاینده‌های محیط زیست به شمار می‌آیند که در چند دهه اخیر بسیار مورد توجه قرار گرفته‌اند. تجمع عناصر در خاک به‌ویژه در زمین‌های کشاورزی، امری تدریجی بوده و غلظت عناصر سنگین می‌تواند به سطحی برسد که امنیت غذایی انسان را تهدید کند. در میان عناصر سنگین، کادمیوم به‌ علت تحرك بالا در سیستم‌های بیولوژیك، سمیت بالا، حلالیت زیاد در آب و جذب سریع توسط سیستم ریشه‌ای بسیاری از گونه‌های گیاهی، یکی از خطرناك‌ترین عناصر سنگین است. در این تحقیق رشد، انباشتگی و توان گیاه‌پالایی کادمیوم در دو گونه خردل اتیوپی (Brassica carinata) و خردل هندی (Brassica juncea) بررسی شده است.

 مواد و روش‌ها: گیاهان در خاك‌های‌ آلوده با غلظت‌های ۰، ۷۵ و ۱۵۰ میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم کادمیوم رشد کردند و پس از ۷ هفته کشت در گلخانه‌، برای سنجش برخی خصوصیات رشدی برداشت شدند.

 نتایج و بحث: نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که تیمارهای کادمیوم بر صفات رشد و میزان کلروفیل دو گیاه اثر معنی‌داری نداشت. هر دو گیاه شاخص تحمل تنش بالایی را نسبت به فلز کادمیوم نشان دادند. با افزایش آلودگی فلز در خاك، غلظت کادمیوم در ریشه و بخش هوایی هر دو گیاه خردل اتیوپی و خردل هندی به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. فاکتور انتقال گیاه خردل هندی حدوداً ۷۰٪ بیشتر از خردل اتیوپی بوده است و بیشترین میزان فاکتور انتقال در تیمار ۷۵ میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم کادمیوم در گیاه خردل هندی مشاهده شد.

 نتیجه‌گیری: مقایسه دو گیاه خردل اتیوپی و خردل هندی نشان می‌دهد که هر دو گونه قادر به تحمل و تجمع کادمیوم بوده، ولی فاکتور انتقال و میزان جذب و تجمع کادمیوم در گیاه خردل هندی بیشتر از خردل اتیوپی بوده است، درنتیجه به نظر می‌رسد گیاه خردل هندی عملکرد بهتری برای استفاده در فرایند گیاه‌پالایی کادمیوم داشته باشد.

واژگان کلیدی
آلودگی خاک- تجمع- شب‌بو- کادمیوم- گیاه‌پالایی

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