ارزيابي آلودگي خاك‌هاي شاليزاري استان گيلان با كادميم با استفاده از روش‌هاي زمين‌آمار و GIS

صفورا اسدی کپورچال, مهدی همایی, حسن رمضان پور

چکیده


سابقه و هدف: تجمع عناصر سنگين در خاك در بسياري از نقاط دنيا مشكلات زيست‌محيطي فراواني را به‌وجود آورده‌اند. غلظت زياد اين عناصر در خاك ممكن است به مقداري زياد به‌وسيله گياه جذب شود و اين مهم‌ترين راه ورود عناصر سنگين به زنجيره غذايي انسان و دام و چرخه‌هاي بيولوژيك است. بنابراين بررسی چگونگي انباشت اين عناصر به منظور جلوگيري از آلودگي خاك و زيست‌بوم ضروري است. در میان عناصر سنگین، کادمیم به دلیل تحرك بالا در سیستم‌هاي بیولوژیک و توانایی تجمع درگیاهان بدون ایجاد هر گونه نشانه‌هاي قابل‌رؤیت به‌عنوان یکی از خطرناك‌ترین عناصر سنگین در نظر گرفته شده است. با توجه به اینکه کادميم در خاک‌هاي اسيدي در محدوده pH 5/4 تا 5/5 متحرک بوده و برنج نیز در خاک‌های اسیدی بهترین رشد را دارد و نیز با توجه به نقش برنج در سلامت جامعه، اين تحقيق با هدف بررسي آلودگي خاك شاليزارهاي استان گيلان به كادميم انجام شد.

مواد و روش‌ها: بدين منظور تعداد ١٠٠ نمونه خاك از عمق ٠-٢٠ سانتي‌متري به طور تصادفي و با استفاده از دستگاه GPS  پیش از کوددهی و کشت و پس از برداشت محصول از شاليزارهاي مختلف استان تهيه شد. برای تجزيه خاك، نمونه‌هاي خاك برداشت‌شده پس از خشك شدن، از الك 2 ميلي‌متري عبور داده شد. غلظت كادميم كل و نيز برخي ويژگي‌هاي خاك شامل بافت خاك، هدايت الكتريكي، واكنش خاك، جرم ويژه ظاهري و حقيقي و ماده آلي خاك اندازه‌گيري شد. توزيع مكاني و پراكنش فلز سنگين كادميم با استفاده از روش‌هاي مختلف زمين آماري شامل IDW، Spline و Kriging در محيط GIS بررسي شد.

نتایج و بحث: نتايج حاصل از تجزيه‌هاي فيزيکي و شيميايي خاک نشان داد که متوسط pH خاک‌هاي مورد آزمايش ٤٨/٦ و شوري عصاره اشباع ٥٩/١ دسي‌زيمنس بر متر بوده که اين مقدار شوري براي کشت گياه برنج مشكلي ايجاد نمي‌كند. درصد شن نمونه‌هاي خاك بين ٤ الي ٣٥، سيلت بين ٢٨ الي ٤٩ و رس بين ٣٩ الي ٦٥ درصد بوده که بدين ترتيب بافت خاك‌ها در محدوده Clay Loam، Silty Clay و Clay بوده که خاکي نسبتاً سنگين تا سنگين و براي کشت گياه برنج مناسب است. مقدار ماده آلي به‌طور متوسط ٧٨/١ و دامنه تغييرات كادميم كل خاك نيز پيش از کشت و پس از برداشت محصول به ترتيب با كمينه 65/0 و 97/1 و بيشينه 40/1 و 05/11 بود. از ميان روش‌هاي زمين‌آماري بررسي‌شده برای توزيع مكاني و پراكنش كادميم روش كريجينگ معمولي با مدل كروي به‌عنوان بهترين روش انتخاب شد.

نتیجه‌گیری: بر اساس نتايج به‌دست‌آمده بخشی از منطقه مورد بررسی پس از برداشت محصول طبق شاخص Kelly آلوده بوده كه مي‌تواند بيانگر تأثير استفاده از كودهاي شيميايي و مديريت غيراصولي اراضي باشد و بايد استفاده از اين كودها با احتياط بيشتري انجام شود. نقشه حاصل مي‌تواند براي بررسي و مديريت استفاده صحيح كودهاي شيميايي برای حاصلخيزي زمين‌هاي شاليزاري استفاده شود.


واژگان کلیدی


تغییرات مکانی، كريجينگ، كادميم، شاليزار، زمين آمار ، GIS

تمام متن:

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